Grammar terms and definitions
If someone wants to understand the real concept and understanding of English language, he has to grasp its terms so he may able to speak English correctly in any environment and situation. Grammar terms and definitions
Opening.- Separation of the buccal canal during the emission of a phoneme.
Ablative.- Case that expresses the distancing or separation of something. In Latin it also assumes the functions of the locative (place of an action) and instrumental (means or instrument by which an action is executed).
Absolute ablative.- Latin grammatical construction, independent of the rest of the sentence, consisting of a noun and, normally, a participle, both in ablative case.
Abbreviation.- Representation of a word through some of its letters.
Absorption.- Incorporation of one sound to another, which sometimes incorporates some of the traits of the absorbed sound.
Accent.- Articulation procedure through which a syllable stands out from those around it. It is one of the prosodic or suprasegmental phenomena.// Set of the various elements of sound (tone, timbre, quantity and intensity), combined in a special way in each language.
Shortening.- Word formation procedure by which part of the phonetic substance of a word is eluted.
Acronym.- Substitution of a group of words by an abbreviation formed by its initials (letters or syllables), so that the new creation is lexicalized, as in RENFE.
Acrostic .- Word or phrase whose letters read in a certain way form a hidden phrase, name or word with the naked eye.
Minutes.- Written in which the problems and agreements dealt with in a meeting are collected.
Speech act.- Minimum unit of linguistic communication. It is composed of a statement and its communicative intention. There are several types: assertive, interrogative, directive and expressive.
Illocutive acts.- These are expressions that are equivalent to actions that are not merely expressive. They produce a real action. They are conventional, codified, systematic and are associated with expressions endowed with meaning.// Intention with which the speaker produces the statement.
Legal acts .- Create rights and duties.
Locutive acts.- They are acts of expression. Its content is agitated in the same expression (they are not speech acts or actions) .// Production of the statement.
Perlocutive acts.- These are acts that characterize certain effects in their characterization, influencing the recipients or recipients in a certain way.
Commissive (speaking) acts.- For Searle, they denote a future commitment (promise, hire or threaten, for example).
Declarative (speaking) acts.- In Searle, they specifically create a new possible world (they are, for example, declaring war, marrying or admitting).
Management (speaking) acts.- According to Searle, they modify attitudes or approaches of the recipient (ask, beg, …)
Expressive (speech) acts.- In Searle, they denote the sender’s psychic attitudes, such as congratulating, thanking or lamenting.
Prescriptive (speech) acts.- They intend to modify the behavior of the receiver, they are locutive acts characterized because their truth and falsity is irrelevant or because their consecutive content does not have to do with conditions of adequacy or inadequacy, being adequacy synonymous with validity.
Representative (speaking) acts.- For Searle, they reflect a certain situation in the world. A situation is seen or described (say, affirm, verify, …)
Action.- Concrete employment made by the speaker of their linguistic competence.
Update.- Transform words or expressions that reflect abstract concepts so that they represent concrete things or phenomena.
Actuante.- In Tesniere, any element that dominates a noun phrase as a unit.
Accusative.- Case that expresses the direct complement of the verb.
Adaptation .- Systematic pragmatic satisfaction of an expression .// Property by which we adapt the message to the communication situation, through the different registers that the language possesses.
Attachment.- Name given by some linguists to the circumstantial complement.
Adjective.- Word that refers to and modifies the noun.
Attachment .- Result of the mutual influence of two languages or neighboring dialects. / / / Language that due to its contiguity to another for some time influences it.
Adverb.- Part of the sentence that modifies the verb, adjective or other adverb, specifying its meaning.
Adversative.- It applies to conjunctions that express the idea of opposition or contrast, such as “but”, and to coordinated sentences whose meanings are totally or partially opposed.
Adjacent.- Term that accompanies another, modifying it.
Aphasia.- Progressive loss of verbal ability.
Apheresis .- Suppression of some sound or group of sounds at the beginning of a word.
Affix.- Morpheme that is added to the lexeme or root of the word. If it is added before it is called a prefix and if it is added behind, it is suffixed.
Agent.- Element that appears as a performer of the verbal action.// Element that has control, responsibility and of which the volitional aspect in the process of an action is relevant.
Agglutination .- Union of two or more words to form one.
Ágrafo.- Person unable to write.
Agramaticality.- Character of the sentences or sequences that do not conform to the rules of grammar.
Alliteration.- Repetition of the same consonant sound in sequence.// Use of words with abundance of the same letters to produce an acoustic effect, normally related to the meaning of the phrase.
Speech.- Speech normally given by leaders in defense of some idea, addressed to people that the speaker considers followers.
Allophones .- Phonic variants that do not alter the meaning.
Allomorph.- Variant of a morpheme.
Allusion.- Procedure to designate something avoiding the express mention of its name.
Alveo Dental.- Articulated consonant that is done by contacting the tongue and the alveoli.
Alveolar.- Sound in which the tip of the tongue is placed in the alveoli, back of the upper teeth.
Anachrony.- Subversion of order. It refers to the mismatch between the order of speech and that of history.
Anadiplosis.- Repetition of a word at the end of a verse or a paragraph and at the beginning of the next.
Anaphora .- Rhetorical figure consisting of the repetition of one or more words at the beginning of several successive clauses or verses. Explicit mentions through demonstrative pronouns.
Anagram.- Word or words formed by the reordering of the letters that constitute another or other words.
Stylistic analysis.- The one that studies the expressive values of the linguistic elements and their disposition in the speech.
Phonological analysis.- It deals with the study of the sounds or phonemes of discourse and their relationships.
Morphological analysis.- The one who studies the nature of each word in isolation.
Semantic analysis.- The one that sticks to the study of meanings.
Syntactic analysis.- The one that aims to analyze the role that different groups of words play in prayer.
Syntagmatic analysis.- It deals with the study of phrases or groups and their internal structure.
Analytical.- Language that uses independent words to express syntactic relationships.
Analogy.- Tendency of irregular forms to become regular.// Similarity established by the imagination between two or more different elements.
Anaptixis.- Vocal synthesis (“coronic” instead of “chronic”).
Antecedent.- Name, pronoun or sentence referred to by a relative pronoun that precedes it.
Anteportada.- Page before the cover of a book.
Antonimia.- Relationship established between two words whose meanings are opposite.
Anthroponyms.- Own nouns that indicate names of people.
Appellate.- Common name.
Apócope .- Term with which the loss of the final elements of a word is designated. / Suppression of a vowel at the end of a word.
Apocrypha.- Counterfeit or dubious author’s work.
Apódosis.- Main proposal of a conditional construction.
Apophony.- Vocal alternation.
Apposition.- Juxtaposition of two nouns or of a noun and a nominal group, in which the second member exercises an explanatory function of the first.
Apostille.- Dimension in which a text is commented, interpreted or completed.
Apostrophe.- Expression vehemently directed at a person or thing personified.
Apoptosis.- Short phrase.
Arabic.- Semitic language spoken by the people of the same name. As written language adheres to the Koranic canons. The most evolved spoken language has two large groups of dialects, Eastern and Western. Its alphabet consists of 28 consonants and three vowels. It is written horizontally and from right to left.
Slang.- Varieties of the language that use certain marginal groups.
Argumentation.- A specific type of illocutive act performed by an issuer when he wants to make certain conclusions admitted to his interlocutor.
Argument.- Also called “fable” or “history”, sequence of actions or events that occur in a narrative.
Argument of authority.- When a certain opinion must be accepted in a specific situation because someone influential and known has held it before.
Grammar Art .- Title of the first Grammar known, work of Dionysius of Thrace.
Major art.- Poetic compositions of verses of more than eight syllables.
Articulation.- Set of movements performed by the voice organs for the pronunciation of sounds and special position they adopt at the time of doing so.
Article .- In traditional grammar, part of the sentence that determines the name and expresses its gender and number. Non-autonomous, dependent and morphological sign. / Journalistic gender of opinion written by an author who signs it and offers the interpretation of an event or issue.
Article determined.- Special type of demonstrative that indicates that an object falls within the field of attention of the one who hears, but without pointing out its situation in space or time: it is a “colorless pronoun”.
Assertive.- Type of speech act used to give information to the recipient.
Assertive.- Statement sentence .
Assimilation .- Development of a whistling fricative element (alveolar or palatal) after an occlusive. It is a particular case of palatalization.
Assimilation.- It is a type of phonetic evolution, by which the articulatory movements of a sound propagate to another neighboring sound.
Asyndeton.- Suppression of conjunctions to give more rapidity, intensity or liveliness to a period or enumeration.
Aspect.- Verbal accident that addresses the internal development of the action (completed or in progress) .// Verbal category that, like time or voice, allows us to express the same verbal idea under different modalities.
Aspiration.- Transformation of a sound in / h /.
Atone.- No tonic .// Phoneme devoid of intensity accent.
Attributive .- It is said of the sentences that have attribute and the verbs with which those sentences are constructed.// In the functional grammar, predicative.
Attribute.- Word or group of words that qualify the subject of a sentence and that is introduced by the verbs “be”, “be” or “seem.”
Augmentative.- It is said of the suffixes that express greater size or intensity.// Word to which an augmentative suffix has been added.
Autoanáfora.- Anaphoric relationship within the speech of the speaker.
Auxiliary.- Applies to verbs that serve to form compound tenses, the passive voice or express nuances of thought.
Low.- Vocal that is done with the tongue very far from the palate. It is also called open .
Under Navarre.- Basque dialect.
Balearic.- Variety of the Eastern Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands.
Barbarism.- Missing spelling or pronunciation of a word.// Use of foreign words when their equivalences exist in Spanish.
Base.- Morphological unit susceptible to flexion, derivation, composition, etc.
Berber.- Language spoken by the people of the same name. It is the oldest language in North Africa.
Betaism.- Confusion of the bilabial / b / with the labiodental / v /.
Biphonematic .- Phonic element consisting of two phonemes.
Bilabial.- Consonant articulated by the action of both lips.
Bilingualism.- Regular use of two languages in a speaking community.
Bimembración.- Union of two terms to specify, complete or emphasize an idea.
Bionics .- Communication inside living organisms.
Cacophony .- Ugly or unpleasant sonority of a word.
Cacuminal .- It is said of the sounds that are articulated with the raised tongue towards the upper alveoli or the palate, so that it touches them with the lower edge or face of its apex.
Cadence.- Rhythm or repetition of sounds or movements that occur with certain regularity.
Calco.- Loan that mimics the structure or meaning of a foreign word or phrase, and not its phonetic entity.
Calderón.- Spelling sign that was used as the paragraph.
Semantic change.- It is a process in which the creation of a new meaning is produced by the disintegration of one or several semes of a given semester and the aggregation of others.
Lexical field.- A set of words whose meaning is related to each other by referring all of them to the same aspect of reality.
Notional field.- It is formed by a set of words that have semes in common because they refer to the same reality.
Semantic field.- Set of words of the same category that share a common meaning, but differ from each other by a significant feature.
Channel.- Physical support through which a message is transmitted.
Cardinal.- Numeral indicating exact amount.
Caribbean.- Family of languages spoken in Brazil, Suriname and Guyana.
Case.- Grammar function exerted by a flexible disinfection .
Catáfora .- The foricity has the function of anticipating or announcing an element that will appear named later in the same text.// Word that anticipates a part of the speech.
Grammatical categories.- Words with functional meaning.
Lexical categories.- Words with full meaning.
Cato.- Book in which children exercised in reading.
Causal.- Type of subordinate clause that refers to the cause of the action expressed by the main clause.
Causative.- Verb or verbal form in which the subject does not perform the action, but induces another to execute it.
Ceceo.- Confluence of the phonemes / s / and / θ / in favor of the latter.
Celtolatina.- Applies to words of Celtic origin that were incorporated into Latin.
Central.- Vowel that articulates with the tongue in either anterior or posterior position.
Talk.- Verbal dissertation not very extensive, whose purpose is to teach and entertain the public, using a simple, entertaining and accurate language.
Ciné.- Minimum unit of gesture.
Kinetics.- Part of the theory of communication that studies the gestures and movements of the body as a means of expression.
Circular.- Written that is addressed to several people in order to communicate something.
Linguistic circle of Prague .- Group formed in 1926 at the initiative of Mathesius. Language is conceived as a functional system, whose purpose is to express and communicate.
Circumlocution.- Phrase with which one avoids referring directly to the subject of discourse.// Periphrasis.
Class.- Sema constant or denotative, generic.
Clause.- In classical philology, the final zone of the period in which rhythmic resources accumulated .// In American linguistics, subdivision of the sentence that contains a subject and a predicate.
Cocoliche .- In Argentina, mixed dialect of Spanish and Italian.
Coding.- Activity that allows the sender to compose the messages he wishes to transmit from the signs and rules of his code.
Code.- Repertoire of signals and set of rules to combine these signals and constitute the messages.
Coherence.- Property inherent in the text by which it can be understood by the listener as a unit in which the parts or components are related to each other and to the context in which the communication occurs .// Unit between the parts of the text.
Cohesion.- Property by which parts of the text are correctly related.
Comma.- Spelling punctuation indicating a short pause.
Comparative.- Degree of the adjective and adjective that names the quality of a noun by comparing it with the same quality of another noun. This quality can be inferior, equal or superior.
Competence.- In Chomsky, knowledge that the speaker of his language possesses, and that allows him to encrypt and decipher messages.
Complement.- Word, group or sentence that completes the meaning of one or more components of the whole sentence or sentence.
Completiva.- Prayer introduced by it , which complements a verb.
Composition.- Word formation procedure by joining two or more words.
Communication.- Broadly speaking, transfer of information or contact between two units that are related.// Transfer of information through messages.// Art of transmitting information, ideas and feelings from one person to another.
Mass communication.- Communication carried out by the media that transmit information to very large social groups.
Linguistic community .- Social group that uses the same language.
Concision .- Use of the right and proper words that express what we mean.
Concordance.- Identity of morphemes between two words.
Confluence.- Fusion of two phonemes into one, with the loss of one of them.
Conjugation.- Ordered set of all forms of a verb.
Conjunction.- Unchanging part of the sentence that links two sentences or two elements of the same sentence. They can be coordinators or subordinates.
Occlusive consonants.- Those that occur after a sudden opening of the glottis; some are deaf (/ p / / t / / k /) without vibration of the vocal cords; others (/ b // d // g /) are sound, with vibration of the vocal cords.
Content.- In the gossip, term applied to meaning. Distinguish between content form (grammatical order of a meaning) and content substance (meaning).
Context.- In the act of communication, what is expressed before and after the message, and that gives it full meaning.// For Coseriu, all the reality surrounding a sign, a verbal act or a speech, as a physical presence , how to know about the interlocutors and how activity.
Physical context.- It covers things that are in sight of those who speak or to which a sign adheres.
Immediate context.- Speech situation. Concrete spacetime circumstances in which the message is issued.
Mediated context.- Historical and social circumstances in which the text has been produced and that conditions it in some way.
Verbal context.- Speech. What has been said and what is going to be said.
Continuous.- Consecutive conjunctions.
Coordination.- Relationship that exists between two or more groups or sentences of the same category and syntactic function, which are joined by a copulative, disjunctive or adversative conjunction.
Copulative.- Verbs “be”, “be” and “seem” that bind the subject with the attribute. These verbs are meaningless and have a link function.// Coordinating conjunction that joins sentences or parts of sentences.// Prayers united through copulative conjunctions.
Corondel.- Fillet of a vertical hairline that divides the text columns of a page vertically. When two columns separate leaving a blank space, it is called the blind crown.
Linguistic Corpus.- Extensive and orderly set of scientific, journalistic texts, etc., that can serve as a research base.
Coupling or mating.- In Levin, repetition of units in equivalent positions.
Linguistic creativity.- Relying on finite and constant formal structures to form the infinite sentences we can handle.
Cryptography.- Writing with cryptic or secret symbols.
Chronography.- Description of an era or a culture based on the features that characterize it compared to the previous or subsequent.
Crossing.- Word formation procedure through which two words intentionally intermingle to produce a new one.
Crude.- Non-adapted foreignisms and Latinisms, which are used with their original spelling and pronunciation and have graphic-phonological features outside the Spanish spelling.
Cultism .- In historical phonetics, a word that has not had normal phonetic evolution, retaining all or much of its primitive phonetics.// Loan taken from classical Latin or Greek.
Cuneiform.- Type of writing used by Sumerians, Assyrians and other Mesopotamian peoples, with wedge-shaped characters.
Melodic or intonation curve.- Tonal ascents and descents that accompany each phonic group.
Dalmatian.- Language missing romance. His last speaker, Antonio Udina, died in 1898.
Danish.- Language of the subgroup of northern Germanic languages spoken in Denmark.
Datism.- Unmotivated employment of synonymous voices.
Dative.- Case that corresponds to the indirect complement function.
Weak.- Syllable not stressed.// Applies to the most closed vowels (i, u).
Declarative.- Statement sentence.
Declination.- Set of all forms of a nominal element. // Group to which a nominal element belongs according to its flexion.
Decode.- In the act of communication, reverse the rules of your code to a coded message to obtain the primitive form of this.
Defective.- Verb that is not used in all modes, times or people
Degemination .- Simplification of a geminated sound.
Deictic.- Any element that refers to the extralinguistic context surrounding the act of enunciation.
Deixis.- Signaling through adverbs or demonstrations that indicate person, place, time or thing. It can refer to other elements present in the text or speech, or only in memory.
Social deixis.- Reflects the relations of situation between speaker and listener.
Demonstrative.- Adjectives and pronouns that indicate the distance in space or time at which things are in relation to the speaker.
Denominative.- Word, especially the verb, which derives from a name.
Dense .- Sound in which the oral cavity predominates, when the tongue is retracted in its joint (palatal and velar phonemes).
Dental.- Consonant articulated with the tongue in the upper incisors.
Deponent.- Type of Latin verb of passive form and active meaning.
Dequeísmo.- Use of “ of what ” by “ what” .
Derivation.- Historical evolution of a language or word.// Formation of words by prefixes or suffixes.
Decoding.- Activity carried out by the receiver, which consists in deciphering the messages that arrive through their senses until they fully understand their meaning.
Description.- Mode of organization of the discourse constituted by three activities in relation to reality: name it, place it in space and time and qualify it.
Phonologization .- Loss of phonological value.
Detachment.- Final flexive morpheme.
Derogatory.- Applies to words that express mockery, menosprecio, hostility, etc., usually by means of affixes.
Recipient.- In human communication, it is the person to whom the issuer directs his statement and with whom he exchanges his role in the speech act.// Being or mechanism capable of reacting in some way to the signal received.// Point of arrival of the message.
Deviation .- In Linguistics, breaking the grammar rule, with stylistic intent.
Determined.- Article that presents a noun or a substantive element already known by speakers.
Determinants.- Free grammatical morphemes that identify or quantify the concept expressed by the nucleus, in the noun phrase. They depend on gender and number of the noun they update. They belong to inventories or closed paradigms.
Diachronic.- That concerns the evolution of languages over time.// Type of linguistics that studies the evolution of languages over time.
Diaphatic.- Linguistic difference determined by the diversity of records or styles with which a language is spoken.
Dialect .- system of signs torn from a common dead or living language disappeared, with a geographical limitation, but without a strong differentiation from others of common origin. It arises from the tendency of the language to fragment into local languages, but this tendency is counteracted by factors of unification (teaching, commerce, …) and by the fact that the dialect does not reach autonomy and prestige.
Dialectology.- Study of the regional and social varieties of a language.
Cognated dialects.- Dialects that have a common origin.
Vertical dialects.- For Vicente García de Diego they are varieties of linguistic use dependent on social factors.
Diastole .- Change of accent place of a word when it passes to a later syllable
Diffuse .- Sound in which the pharyngeal cavity predominates (labial and dental).
Diglosia .- Unbalanced coexistence of two languages.// Situation in which one language is dominant when contact between several occurs.// According to Charles A. Ferguson, differentiation of a higher class language and varieties of the lower classes.
Digraphs.- Sets of two letters or graphemes that represent a single phoneme.
Diminutive.- Derivative suffix that expresses smaller size or intensity of what is meant by the root, or adds certain affective or expressive values.// Word formed with diminutive suffixes.
Diphthongization.- Process by which a diphthong is produced.
Diphthong.- Set of two distinct vowel elements that are pronounced in a single syllable.
Increasing diphthong .- The one whose first element is more closed (je).
Declining diphthong .- The one whose second element is more closed (ei).
Manager.- Type of speech act whose purpose is to get the recipient to carry out an action.
Speech.- Speech composition intended to convince and persuade the audience of the ideas that the speaker exposes.// Linguistic sequences whose length is not specified.// Linguistic unit equal to or greater than the sentence, composed of meaningful and linked words and phrases in a consistent way.
Disemia .- Possibility that a term acquires two meanings in its use.
Dysphemism.- Substitute the usual expression for another that accentuates pejorative, humorous or burlesque aspects.
Dissimilation.- Process by which one of two similar or identical sounds in one word is modified to differentiate itself from the other.
Distension.- Final phase of the pronunciation of a phoneme, in which the displacement of the sounding organs occurs.
Distribution.- Position within the statement.
Defective distribution .- The one that does not occur in any position. For example, the phoneme corresponding to ll does not appear in Spanish in an implosive situation.
Disjunctive.- Applies to the coordinated sentences that raise the choice between two possibilities.// Conjunctions that serve as a link to the disjunctive sentences.
Etymological doublet.- Set of two words with the same etymological origin, one of cultured transmission and another of patrimonial transmission.
Dorsal .- Sound that articulates with the back of the tongue.
Drift or drift .- Sapir theory, which states that languages follow a certain direction in their evolution.
Dubitative.- Conjunctions, adverbs, sentences or expressions that imply or denote doubt.
Durative.- Verb, tense and mode of verbal significance that expresses an action in development or not yet finished.
Ecolalia .- Stage of development, towards six months, in which the child imitates sounds with some significant intention, prior to the appearance of the first intended linguistic sign.
Edition.- Printing, recording or stamping of a work, writing, drawing or musical piece for publication or dissemination. // Set of copies of the same work printed at once.
Annotated edition.- The text is commented on by means of explanatory notes that facilitate its understanding.
Bilingual edition.- Edition of a foreign work that collects the original text and carries the translation on the adjacent sheet.
Critical edition.- It is usually undertaken by an authority on the subject and in it the reproduction of the text is based on the comparison and study of the different manuscripts and more authorized editions of the existing ones. The purpose is usually the reconstruction of the original edition. Take notes, prologue and bibliography.
Graphic reproduction edition.- Illustrated edition.
Edition of variants.- Edition that starts from the original text of the edition considered of more authority, but adds modifications or versions of other editions of the same work that are considered valuable for the understanding of some aspect.
Diamond edition.- Small size edition, with small characters.
Diplomatic edition.- How the palaeographic edition is known.
Phonetic edition.- Edition that seeks to adapt the text so that its reading sounds as it should have been heard in its time, so that the sounds are respected, but not the spellings, which appear adapted.
Modernized edition.- Edition in which the desire to express the work in modern language prevails, bringing it closer to the present, changing spellings, turns and expressions.
Paleographic edition.- Reproduces the original manuscript of the original work with fidelity to its graphic characteristics, although omissions are restored and abbreviations are developed, for example. The innovations are enclosed in square brackets.
Pirate edition.- The one that is done illegally.
Prince or princeps edition – First edition that is made of a work.
Perlocutive effect.- Action of the statement on the beliefs, attitudes or behavior of the recipient.
Composite element.- Roots of Greek or Latin origin that enter into the composition of words.
Extra-linguistic elements.- They can be used independently of verbal language, although they always appear: gestures, body distance, etc.
Elision.- Deletion of the final vowel of a word when the next begins with a vowel. // Omission in a sentence of a word whose meaning is understood.
Elocution.- Part of the rhetoric that deals with the selection of words and how to distribute them in the speech.
Emblems.- Nonverbal signs that have verbal translation and usually replace it.
Issuer.- Origin of the communicative act, be it an individual, a group or an entity.
Enlysis.- Union of a word with another precedent that serves as support.
Endocentric.- Type of compound word in which one of the components calls the basic concept and the other modifies it.
Intonation.- Special voice modulation that affects word sequences.// One of the resources for the expression of the sentence modality and, in addition, constant and universal, which on the other hand fulfills a marked function of the statements.
Entropy .- In communication theory, describe unpredictable and unexpected information in the context in which it appears.
Enumeration.- Succession of elements that belong, generally, to the same grammatical class, and that fulfill the same syntactic function. It can be gradative or orderly, when these elements keep a certain semantic relationship with each other, and chaotic, when they do not keep each other semantic relationship.
Enunciation.- Act by which man becomes owner of the linguistic system and puts it into operation in the statement.
Statement.- Concrete realization in speech.// Word or set of words, endowed with their own autonomy and intonation, which form a complete message. It ends in a long pause that in the writing is represented, for example, by a period, a semicolon, a question mark or exclamation point.
Statement.- Prayer that affirms or denies something, without adding any exclamatory, interrogative, imperative nuance, etc.
Epéntesis .- Adding a sound inside the word, especially to facilitate pronunciation.
Epicenter.- Name that designates a subject regardless of gender (for example, zebra).
Epithet.- Adjective semantically unnecessary as redundant, since it describes a quality inherent in the noun it accompanies.
Excision.- Division of a phoneme in two.
Specific.- Adjective that limits the extension of the noun to which it refers.
Standard.- Modality of a language spoken and written by the most educated speakers, characterized by the fixity of its grammar, lexicon and spelling.
Aesthetics.- Philosophical discipline that deals with the study of artistic productions .// For Croce, it is a theoretical branch of philosophy that involves an exhibition of the concrete.
Reception aesthetics.- Critical current that claims the primacy of the sphere of social and subjective experience of the text as the north of the studies on Literature. Weinrich, Zimmermann and Jauss insist on the possibility of approaching literature from the point of view of their recipients.
Styling.- Study of the style and linguistic expression in general.
Direct style.- Literal reproduction of a saying or thought of others or their own.
Indirect style.- A saying or thought of others or one’s own is reproduced through subordinate phrases.
Indirect free style.- Participates in the indirect style (times and modes vary) and direct (does not have an introductory verb).
Ostensive stimulus.- Used in ostensive-inferential communication, it is produced to attract the attention of the receiver and concentrate it on the meaning of the sender.
Structuralism.- Scientific-philosophical current of the twentieth century, which was applied to Linguistics by Saussure.
Etymology.- Origin of a word.// Study of the origin of words.
Popular etymology.- In the vulgar language, false interpretation that produces changes in the form or meaning of a word when associated with another related, but of different origin.
Ethology.- In Umberto Eco, Science of fashion and customs.
Euphemism.- Peripheral allusion or metaphorical image to avoid the use of a taboo word, or that does not expressly mention.
Euphony .- Beautiful and pleasant sound of a word.
Phonetic evolution.- Modifications suffered by the pronunciation of a word throughout the centuries.
Ex libris.- Mark on paper or cardboard of the person or library that owns a book, which is usually stuck on the back of the cover.
Exabrupto.- Abrupt expression, out of tune.
Exclamation.- Voice or phrase that expresses with intensity some feeling.
Exhortative.- Prayer or speech of plea or mandate.
Exocentric.- Type of compound word in which neither of the two components calls the basic concept.
Exordio .- Introduction of speech. Its purpose is to present the cause or problem that is argued before the recipient and try to gain his benevolence.
Expletives.- Voices or particles that, without being necessary for the meaning, embellish the phrase.
Explanatory.- Adjective that adds to the noun to which a nuance or complementary value refers.
Explanation.- Proposal recovered through a combination of decoding and inference, which provides a premise for the derivation of contextual implications and other cognitive effects.// Content explicitly communicated.
Constant expressions .- In Austin they are the ones that are subject to the dilemma of being true or false. They are expressions of referential value, whose significance represents real-world entities.
Performative expressions.- In Austin they are expressions characterized by being relevant in them the alternative between being lucky or unfortunate. They replace actions, they are even actions.
Factual.- Verb or verbal periphrasis whose subject does not actually execute the action, but rather makes others perform it.
Family of words.- A set of words that come from the same root.
Linguistic family.- A set of languages that are genetically related.
Feedback.- Feedback process. It consists of receiving information from the recipients of the message, which allows the sender to rectify their messages and thus obtain a high degree of productivity in the information.
Final.- Type of subordinate clause in which the purpose or goal of the action expressed in the main clause is expressed.
Flamenco.- Western Germanic language spoken in Flanders and currently spoken by the Flemish minority of Belgium. It is a variant of Dutch.
Flexion.- Morphological variation or change of words by means of affixes or disengagements.
Flexible.- Concerning flexion or grammatical variation by gender, case, number, person, time, voice, mode or aspect.
Phoneme.- Minimum unit in the form of language expression.// Smaller unit in which the unit of signs can be segmented.// Phonic unit of discrete character that has a distinctive value.// Set of relevant phonic features.
Phonemic.- Relating to phonemes.
Phonetics.- Branch of linguistics that deals with sounds. Study all the material aspects of the construction of sentences: how sounds are produced, what physical characteristics they possess or how they are perceived by the listener.
Phonetic.- Relative to linguistic sounds.
Phonoaudiology.- Speech therapy.
Phonogram.- Sign capable of representing a sound.
Phonology.- Study of phonemes (significant elements at the language level). / Science of the twentieth century that tries to explain the functional dimension of linguistic sounds.
Phonologization .- Appearance of a new phoneme.
Phonosimbolism .- Phenomenon that refers to the associative relationships established between sound or combinations of sounds and certain shapes and colors, figures and meanings, figures and words.
Phonotaxis.- A set of rules that govern the possible combinations of the sounds of a language.
Treatment formulas .- The different ways that the first person has to address the second in the colloquium. An extralinguistic factor of sociological nature intervenes in its selection: the hierarchical situation of the interlocutors of the discourse.
Fractional.- Partitive. It expresses a certain part of a whole.
Fragmentism.- Truncated structure.
Phrase.- Succession of words. It has to be consistent, although it is not necessary to constitute a unit of communication, since this characterizes the prayer.
Phrases made.- Expressions with a fixed and invariable form and with a special meaning, which does not result from adding the meanings of the words that form it.
Fricative.- Sound produced by a narrowing in the passage of air.
Fricatization .- Passage of an occlusive sound to fricative.
Source.- Real issuer, is the origin of the act of communication, where the message creation process originates.
Function.- In Jakobson, it is the form and / or semantic imprint left in the message for its orientation to each of the elements of the communicative process.
Appellate function of language.- Bühler thus refers to the appeal to the listener to conduct himself in a certain way. A response is expected from the interlocutor.
Expressive language function.- For Bühler it is the manifestation of emotional states, attitudes towards things.
Phatic or language contact function.- Relate the message to the contact between sender and receiver through the channel. Its purpose is to initiate, maintain or break that contact.
Metalinguistic function of language.- It allows languages to refer to themselves. It expresses the relationship that may exist between the message and the code to which the expression belongs.
Poetic function.- Its purpose is to embellish the form of the message to achieve aesthetic effects or to attract the attention of the recipient.
Representative function of language.- In Bühler, it refers to that which occurs when the speaker expresses objective facts, transmits a content related to what is neither the speaker nor the listener.
Future.- Verbal form that expresses an action that will occur in a time that has not yet arrived.
Gallicism.- Loan taken from French.
Gemination .- Immediate repetition of a linguistic element: sound, syllable, word, in pronunciation or in writing.// Duplication of a sound.
Gender.- Type of flexion that groups the nouns into two classes, masculine and feminine, and some pronouns and determinants in masculine, feminine and neutral.
Genitive.- Case that corresponds to the function of indicating possession or belonging.
Gentilicio.- Noun or adjective that expresses origin or nationality.
Linguistic geography.- Branch of linguistics that deals with delimiting the areas in which a linguistic phenomenon takes place. It is part of dialectology and its objective is the constitution of linguistic atlases.
Germanía.- Prostitial jargon of ruffians and thieves.
Germanisms.- Voices from the language of the Visigoths, incorporated into Spanish between the 5th and 6th centuries.
Gerund.- Non-personal form of the verb that generally expresses an action simultaneous to that of the main verb.
Gossip.- General and structural theory of the language proposed by Hjelmslev (1899-1965) and Uldall. It is an algebraic method of description, not only of any language, but also applicable to other materials of human culture. It is heir to Saussure‘s thought. From the statement of this that language is a form and not a substance , opposes the form (object of Linguistics study) to the substance (foreign to it) and distinguishes in both a double plane of expression and content , which correspond respectively to the signifier and the meaning of Saussure.
Glottal.- Sound that is articulated in the glottis, between the vocal cords.
Glottochronology.- Term collected by Swadesh and Lees, it is an attempt to measure the degree of affinity between coded dialects (with a common origin). It is an application of mathematical and statistical methods to linguistic problems.
Glotopolitics.- Practical application of Linguistics. Use of linguistic results or instructions in political contexts, especially in situations of bilingualism and linguistic policy in general.
Gradation.- Orderly enumeration of words or phrases in ascending or descending scale, which usually concludes in a culmination or climax.
Comparative degree of the adjective.- It relates the same quality of two people or things expressing inferiority, equality or superiority.
Positive degree of the adjective.- Express the quality without intensity.
Superlative degree of the adjective.- It indicates a quality in its highest degree by means of the termination – very, by means of a prefix or by putting the adverb very first.
Spelling.- Letter or letters that represent a phoneme in the written language.
Grammar .- Art of speaking and writing a language correctly.// Study of languages, based on the word as a fundamental unit.// For dressmakers, a linguistic reflection of mental structures.
Grammar of faults.- In Coseriu, a science that studies transgressions and modifications of the Standard.
Generative (and transformational) grammar. – Grammar model created by Noam Chomsky, which tries to establish a series of rules by which a language is capable of generating an infinite number of grammatical sentences from a reduced set of basic constructions.
Historical grammar.- History of the phonological and morphological development of a language.
Grammaticality.- Adaptation of grammar to linguistic competence.
Phonic groups.- Units constituted by intonation curves.
Gutural.- It is said of the velar consonants.
Speak.- For Saussure, individual reality, is the realization of the language at a given time by a specific speaker.
Family speech.- Intermediate variety between colloquial and vulgar speech that is what we use with trusted people.
Speak designatively.- For Morris, a type of consecutive act by virtue of which something that has an equivalence in the real world or does not coincide is constituted linguistically, thus being true or false.
Haplology.- In general linguistics, contraction of two syllables when they have similar consonant articulations.
Correlation beam .- Set of phonemes whose relationships are repeated in different areas of articulation.
Hellenism.- Loan taken from the Greek.
Heteroanáfora .- Anaphoric relationship between the speeches of the participants.
Heteroglossia.- In Bakhtin, internal ideological dialogue subsumed in a monologue.
Heteronomy.- Lexical differentiation of words that have great semantic proximity, but that come from different roots (for example, “horse” and “mare”).
Heteronym.- Name with which an author signs part of his work when he adopts a mock personality.
Hiatus.- Sequence of two vowels belonging to two different syllables.
Hipálage.- Displacement of an adjective, so that it is applied to another noun different from the one that corresponds to it but which is close.
Hyperbaton.- Violent rupture of the grammatical order.
Hiperonimia.- Reverse relationship to hyponymy.
Hyperonyms.- Lexemes that have a general and comprehensive meaning, inclusive.
Hypocoristic.- Name used as an affectionate or family name.
Hyponymy.- Relationship between two terms, one of which is included in another.
Hypostasis.- Passage of a word from one grammatical category to another.
Homophony.- Phonetic coincidence of two different words.
Homography.- Phonetic and graphic coincidence of two different words.
Homonymy.- Coincidence of signifiers between different meanings, with the proviso that they are not related or have any sema in common.
Icon.- a sign determined by its dynamic object by virtue of its own internal nature (for example, a pictorial representation).
Ideograms.- Any globally representative sign of a concept that can be directly captured without translating it into the words of any language (for example, traffic signs or numbers). They are characterized by their universal character, their economy and the speed with which their perception is verified.
Idiolect.- Individual speech, intersection between the geographic dimension of the speaker’s particular dialect and the dimension that results from its social framework.
Idiotism.- Construction or syntactic structure characteristic of a language, but alien to the general rules of grammar.
Ilative.- Type of syntactic construction in which the meaning of the second sentence is a consequence of what was said in the first.
Imaginative.- Language function with which an invented reality is transmitted.
Imperative.- Verbal mode that expresses mandate or plea.
Impersonal.- Verbal form whose action is expressed without reference to a specific subject.// Prayer in which an impersonal verbal form intervenes.
Implementation .- For Alarcos, the Direct Complement function.
Implication.- Pragmatic dimension of meaning. It is not part of the literal meaning of a statement, but is produced by the combination of the literal meaning and context. / Inference of meaning derived from the conditions (the context of the statement) in which the statement occurs
Implosive .- Occlusive that only has the first time of its articulation (the intention) and therefore lacks an explosion. By extension it is applied to any consonant in the final position of syllable.
Lexical impropriety.- Phenomenon by which some speakers confuse words because they have similar forms or because there is a significant relationship between them.
Subsection.- In a grammatical period, a member that encloses a partial meaning.// Prayer interspersed in another, or placed at the end.// Story interspersed in another and little related to the subject.
Indefinite.- They replace a person or thing not well specified or whose determination does not interest the interlocutors.
Indicative.- Verbal mode that exposes the action of the verb, without providing other nuances.
Index.- a sign determined by its dynamic object by virtue of being in a real relationship with its object (for example, a proper name).
Infixes.- Morphemes introduced in the middle of the phonological structure of the lexeme.
Infinitive.- Non-personal form of the verb with which it is named.
Inflection .- Closure of a vowel caused by a palatal element or very closed veil (yod or wau).
Informant.- Person from whom speech samples are obtained for study.
Report.- News or data set that is given about a person or thing.
Infundio.- Lie or false news, usually of a tendentious nature.
English.- Germanic language spoken in the United Kingdom, United States and countries of British influence.
Innatism.- In Saussure, innate character of the faculty of language in the human species.
Intensity.- It is the greater or lesser degree of expiratory force with which a sound is pronounced.
Interdental.- Consonant that is articulated by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower incisor teeth.
Interfixes.- Morphemes introduced between the lexical base and other morphemes, but which do not provide semantic content.
Interjection.- Voice or expression that is pronounced in an exclamatory tone to express a mood, a warning, an order, etc. It is written between signs of admiration and is equivalent to an abbreviated or implied sentence.
Interlanguage.- Typical linguistic competence of the person who is in the process of learning a new language or whose acquisition of that language has fossilized.
Interpreter.- In Peirce it is a category that would correspond to the meaning of the sign.
Interrogatives.- They ask for an unknown element that they substitute taking their syntactic function.
Intertonic.- Stunning, but neither initial nor final.
Intervocalic.- Consonant located between vowels.
Irish.- Language of the official Gaelic group in Ireland.
Isoglosa.- Imaginary line that in a linguistic map indicates the limits of a particular phonetic, grammatical or lexical peculiarity.
Iterative.- Verb that expresses a repetition of the action.
Jargon .- Special linguistic code used by more or less extensive social groups. The SAR requires that it is a special and familiar language used by individuals of certain professions, such as students, bullfighters, etc. / Secret language of marginal groups.
Jerigonza.- Jargon, language difficult to understand.
Judeoespañol.- Archaic form of Castilian spoken by the Jews expelled from Spain in the fifteenth century.
Linguistic game.- Concept that acquires importance with Wittgenstein, is a linguistic activity subject to rules whose execution is in itself the game (for example, narrating).
Lip.- Sound that is articulated mainly with the lips.
Labiodental.- Consonant that is articulated by touching the lower lip and the upper incisors.
Labiovelar.- Consonant whose joint combines a rounding of the lips and a velar point of articulation.
Labortano.- Basque dialect.
Ladino.- Romance or old Castilian.
Laísmo.- Use of the pronoun “la” as an indirect feminine complement, instead of “le”.
Lalation .- Period of human development in which the babble begins and in which indeterminate sounds are produced.
Lateral.- Consonant in whose joint the air comes out from the sides of the mouth and not from the center.
Language.- Communication instrument, vocal in nature, doubly articulated, according to which human experience is analyzed differently in each community.// For Sapir it is a system of symbols, an inheritance.
Binding language.- Language that establishes its grammatical relationships basically by juxtaposing root affixes.
Insulating language.- that in which words are invariable and grammatical relationships are established by juxtaposing roots, intonation changes, word order, etc.
Analytical language.- the one that uses free morphological elements to express the relationship between words.
Common language or mother.- the one that gives rise to a family of languages.
Creole language.- Pidgin acquired as a mother tongue by children born in a certain linguistic environment and gradually becomes a complete language.
Culture language.- The one that enjoys prestige as a literary or scientific language or for its social or international influence.
Language in contact.- Those that, geographically or demographically, have contact areas and mutual influence.
Free language.- language used as a vehicle for communication between speakers who do not have it as their mother tongue.
Language.- Faculty that human beings have to understand each other by means of vocal signs.// Communication instrument, specifically human, that serves to represent or symbolize reality.// Communication system through arbitrary signs.// For Bloomfield, it is an instrument by which the man who has received an external stimulus (e) reacts by means of the word (r) that acts as a stimulus (e) on another person and provokes his reaction (R).
Literal language.- Lázaro Carreter pointed out that he is the employee in communications that must be deciphered on his own terms and thus must be preserved.
Lexeme.- Root of a word.// Unchanging part of a word, in which the fundamental meaning of it resides.
Lexicon.- Total set of words that form a language.// Vocabulary.
Active lexicon.- The one of constant use and that is reduced to a few thousand words.
Passive lexicon.- Broad lexicon, which only has to be recognized.
Heritage lexicon.- Vocabulary of a language that has been transmitted, mainly orally, from parents to children, from century to century without any interruption.
Lexicology.- Study the formation and creation of words.
Lexicon.- A kind of dictionary in which the terms are defined by a finished set of selective features that provide semantic and grammatical information.
Free.- Syllable ending in vowel.
Lingua franca .- International language.
Linguistics.- For T. Lewandowsky, language science, study of language with the purpose of describing and explaining human language, its internal relations, its function, its role in society.// For A. Martinet, scientific study of language humano.// For G. Mooin, it is the science of language, an objective, descriptive and explanatory study of the structure, functioning (synchronous linguistics) and evolution over time (diachronic linguistics) of human natural languages.
Anthropological linguistics.- Also called ethnolinguistics, it is a discipline in which linguistic and sociocultural anthropology converge from which it is possible to treat the complexity of the object language-thought-culture-society in its different projections and especially treat the linguistic problem in contact contexts cultural linguistic
Cartesian Linguistics.- Set of ideas that appear in the tradition of universal grammar that develops from the general and reasoned grammar of Port-Royal (1660), based on the rationalist philosophy of Descartes (1596-1650).
Functional linguistics.- It emphasizes what speech has in order to ensure communication between the interlocutors, the characteristics that differentiate one language from another.
Textual linguistics .- Discipline that began in Germany in 1964.
Liquid.- A term that applies to consonants that are more open than any other consonant.
Plain.- Vocablo that has the phonetic accent in the penultimate syllable.
Locutions.- Combinations of two or more words that work as if they were one, whose meaning does not equal that of the sum of its elements.
Speech therapy.- Health discipline that deals with the prevention, evaluation and treatment of human communication disorders (alterations in voice, speech, language or hearing).
Logosphere.- Name applied to our time, in the sense of “word world”.
Macrostructure.- Textual structure of a global type and of a semantic nature that constitutes an abstract representation of the global structure of meaning of a text.// For García Berrio, development of the topic or topic of discourse.
Macrology.- Prolixity, talk more than necessary.
Mass-media.- Mass media.
Maximum quality.- Grice explains that all communicative relationship presupposes (through cooperation) the acceptance by the interlocutors of their knowledge and the truth of what is affirmed.
Maximum amount.- Established by Grice, he states that every communicative exchange provides a moderate amount of information.
Maximum mode.- According to Grice, it establishes cooperativity in a communicative exchange through clear, unambiguous, brief and orderly interventions.
Maximum relationship.- Grice states that all communicative exchange responds to relevant aspects, focusing on details put into question in the communicative relationship, so that the thematized in a question is answered and not otherwise.
Media.- Vocal that articulates with the tongue neither near nor far from the palate.
Message.- Coded broadcast by means of which the sender transmits to the receiver something that he wishes to communicate.
Metabasis.- Phenomenon caused when a grammatical category works in discourse with a different function than the one assigned to it at the language level.
Metalanguage.- Language used to study the properties of the same or another language.
Metaplasm.- Alteration of a word by deleting, adding or changing any of its letters.
Metathesis.- Change of place of a sound inside a word.
Metrics .- Discipline that deals with the rhythm, structure and combination of the verses.// Art of structuring the verses, according to their measure.
Modality.- Attitude of the speaker before the content of the sentence.
Idioms .- Proprietary phrases of a language that do not conform, in its construction or in its meaning, to the general norms of grammar.
Mode.- Grammar accident of the verb that indicates the point of view of the person who speaks in relation to the action of the verb.
Monema.- Minimum logical unit of the language. It can be lexicon (lexeme) or grammatical (morpheme).
Monophonematic.- Phonic element consisting of a single phoneme.
Monograph.- Treaty on a specific subject.
Monolingualism.- Regular use of a single language in a speaking community.
Monoptongation.- Phonetic reduction of a diphthong to a single vowel.
Monosemia.- Semantic phenomenon by which a signifier corresponds to a single meaning.
Morpheme.- Minimum unit of grammatical analysis bearing significance.
Derivative morphemes .- Affixes, serve to form new words from a lexeme. They can be, according to their position in the word, prefixes, suffixes and infixes or interfixes.
Flexible morphemes.- Also called grammatical accidents or disengagements, they are the endings of the word that indicate gender, number, person, time, mode or aspect.
Morphemic.- Part of the grammar specialized in morphemes.
Morph .- Concrete realization of the morpheme.
Morphology.- Analysis of the internal organization of words.// Grammar discipline that studies the word, its internal structure and its classification.
Flexive morphology.- Part of the morphology that studies the variations of the words produced by the flexible morphemes.
Morphonology.- Intermediate zone between the different linguistic levels .// For Trubetzkoy, the study of the phonological structure of the morphemes and the combinatorial modifications in the different language morpheme groups corresponds.
Morphosyntax.- Joint study of morphology and syntax.
Motosity.- Tendency of the bilingual indigenous people of the Andean mountain range to reduce the range of five vowels from Spanish to three (i, a, u).
Mute.- It is said of any written sign that is not pronounced.// Term that designates consonants that should sound together with a vowel (occlusive).
Crutch.- Unnecessary word or phrase that is often repeated in the conversation by habit or as a support for speaking.
Multiplicative.- Numeral that expresses the idea of multiplication.
Nasal.- Sound in whose pronunciation the air comes out totally or partially through the nose.
Neologism.- New vocabulary in a language.
Neutralization.- Loss of the distinctive value between two phonemes.// General phenomenon of natural languages by virtue of which some values of the language disappear.
Nexus.- Grammatical element that unites syntactic terms or structures.
Leveling.- In dialectology, a process of simplification of complex and variable linguistic structures that accompanies a mixture of dialects.// In morphology, the process by which the forms of a paradigm are regularized by mutual influence.
Name.- Linguistic expression of the participants of the event indicated by the verb.
Nominative.- Case that corresponds to the subject function.
Norm.- Set of rules and characters that indicate the correct use of a language.
Number.- Morpheme of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, determinants and verbs, which groups its forms into two classes: singular and plural.
Oblique.- Each of the cases, except the nominative and the vocative.
Occlusive.- Sound in whose production the sounding organs completely interrupt the expiration of the exhaled air.
Olmec.- Language spoken by the people of the same name.
Onomastics.- Names of people, gods and institutions.
Onomatopoeia .- Words whose phonic aspect somehow symbolizes the meaning.
Prayer.- In Amado Alonso and Henríquez Ureña, the smallest unit of speech with complete meaning.// Para Sapir, linguistic expression of a proposition.
Ordinal.- Numeral that expresses idea of order or hierarchy.
Spelling.- Set of rules governing the written presentation of a language.
Orthology.- Set of rules to pronounce a language correctly.
Oxytocin.- Acute word.
Word.- Minimum linguistic unit that bears a symbolic or representative function.// In accordance with a phonological criterion, it is any segment of a sentence limited by a potential pause // From a semantic point of view, union of a signifier with a concept. Basic unit for the preparation of dictionaries.// Smaller linguistic unit that can be pronounced complete and alone.
Palatal.- Sound that is articulated approaching the back of the tongue to the palate.
Palatalization.- Conversion in palatal of a sound that was not before.
Paleography.- Science that studies spelling or writing since ancient times.
Palindrome.- Phrase that can be read in the reverse direction without changes.
Pangram.- Phrase that uses all the letters of the alphabet, avoiding repeating them.
Papiamento.- Spanish Creole with Portuguese and Dutch vestiges. It speaks of the Dutch dependencies of the Caribbean.
Paraphrase.- Repeat sentences from a known author.
Paraphrase.- Explanation of a text through amplification.
Paragoge.- Metaplasm that consists of adding and / or changing a letter at the end of a word.
Paragraph .- Set of ordered sentences marked by an informative topic.
Parasynthesis.- Creation of neologisms by derivation and composition.
Parataxis.- Grammar coordination.
Paroxetine.- Plain word.
Paragraph.- Each of the parts of a speech or writing, separated from the rest by a separate point or by a long pause.
Past participle.- Non-personal form of the verb.
Participant (a) .- Unity or construction of the language that involves the consideration of a part of a whole.
Passive reflects.- Syntactic construction in which the passive element is expressed impersonally through a reflexive construction.
Patrimonial.- Word transmitted by popular means.
Patronymic.- Surname formed from a proper name.
Periphrasis .- Expression of a simple concept through circumlocution.
Verbal Periphrasis.- Grouping of a conjugate auxiliary verb and a non-personal verb (infinitive, gerund or participle) that may or may not carry a link.
Perisology.- Redundant and superfluous statement of data that has already been said or that is implicit in the sense of what is said.
Perísstasis.- Argument or theme of a speech.
Peroration.- Last part of the speech, in which its main points are listed.
Pictographic.- Ideographic writing that consists of drawing the objects to be explained in words.
Pictogram.- Sign of writing figures or symbols.
Pidgin.- Linguistic variety created from two or more existing languages, in order to meet communicative needs between individuals and groups that do not have any variety in common .// Slang valid for immediate contacts, is a language of commitment.
Poetics.- It deals with the theory of literary discourses. According to Jakobson, it could be considered an integral part of Linguistics.
Polish.- Slavic language of the western group spoken in Poland.
Polyglot.- Practical knowledge of different languages.
Polymorphism.- Phonetic phenomenon that refers to the fact that the same speaker can pronounce the same word in different ways.
Polysemy.- Plurality of meanings for the same signifier.
Polysynthetic.- It is said of the languages where different parts of a sentence come together to form a single word.
Portuguese.- Romanesque language spoken in Portugal, Brazil and areas that were possessions of Portugal.
Positive.- Degree of neutral significance of the adjective.
Pragmatic.- Study of the relations between sender, message and receivers in a communicative process.// In Morris, part of the Semiotics, theory of the relations of the sign with the subject who uses it.// Study of everything that affects the language.
Preached.- For Amado Alonso and Henríquez Ureña, this is what is said in the sentence.
Prefixes.- Affixed elements, lacking autonomy, which are placed before a lexical base to which various semantic values contribute.
Present present.- Case of the present in which action and verb fully coincide.
Loans.- Voices or expressions of other languages that are incorporated into the lexical flow of a language.
Presuppositions.- Knowledge of the world by each one of the interlocutors (experiences, information, sensations, etc.) of speech acts in general.
Primitive.- Word that does not derive from another of the same language
Proformas.- Specialized elements in the substitute function.
Prosody.- Part of the grammar that teaches the correct pronunciation of words.
Prosthetics.- Addition of a sound, especially a vowel, at the beginning of a word.
Protolanguage.- Language for which there are no written testimonials.
Protolanguage.- First language, common ancestor of related languages.
Proxémica.- Study the structuring that makes the human being of his immediate space from the body environment.
Psycholinguistics.- Study of verbal behaviors in their psychological aspects.
Receiver.- Destination of the communicative act.
Internal receiver.- Character to whom the narration is dedicated or directed.
Reciprocity.- oppositional relationship that exists between mutually implicating terms.
Straight.- Nominative case.
Vocal reduction.- Process by which a vowel weakens, deafening, abbreviating or changing timbre.
Redundancy.- Additional information that would be superfluous if the transmission conditions were optimal and that guarantees the correct interpretation of the message even in unfavorable conditions.
Referring.- Reality of which a message speaks.// External or internal reality of the individual, triggering stimulus of emission wishes using a certain language.
Linguistic register.- Variety appropriate to a specific domain and situation. According to Halliday, it is characterized by stylistic features, themes and content.
Paradigmatic relations.- (Associative or in absentia ) relations that enter the signs with the signs that have common features with them of a functional, semantic nature, etc.
Syntagmatic relations.- ( In praesentia ) relationship between the signs and the signs that precede or follow them, given the linear character of the signifier.
Representation.- it is something that is as it is, independent of any human entity.
Rhetoric.- It is the science of oratory discourse that reaches all figurative expression procedures characteristic of language. He was born linked to a practical purpose and a specific audience: the persuasion of the listener in the public forums of the Greek democracies. // Art of expressing oneself with property and clarity.// By contrast, confusing speech, art of combining words to convey nothing.
Retroflex.- Part of the articulation of a consonant in which the tongue rises and turns towards the palate.
Noise .- Anything that interferes with or hinders effective communication.
Semantema.- Linguistic element that provides the semantic information of a word.
Semantics.- Branch of linguistics that deals with the meaning of the components of the structure of a language.
Semi Consonant.- Vocal type joint that starts more closed and ends with a larger opening (ie).
Semicultisms.- Terms taken late from Latin and that have experienced only the processes of phonetic evolution that took place after their incorporation.
Semiosis.- Significance process by which a reality becomes a sign of something for someone who interprets it as such.
Semiotics.- In Saussure, general science of signs, within which verbal language is included.
Semitic.- Family of languages spoken in Africa and Asia to which Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic belong.
Semivocal.- Vocalic joint that begins with a larger opening and ends more closed (ei).
Sense.- In Ullmann, information that is communicated to the listener.
Sign.- Sign whose purpose is to evoke, change or originate an action, being its occasional appearance in relation to the planned action. It replaces phonic language and acts directly and immediately on the recipient of the message.
Acronym.- Word formed by the initial letters of other words.
Meaning.- Concept represented by a signifier, with which it forms the linguistic sign.
Significant.- Phoneme or series of phonemes that are associated with a meaning to form a linguistic sign.
Sign.- represent, something that takes place for someone from something under some relationship or by virtue of something. It is addressed to someone; that is to say, it creates in the mind of that person an equivalent sign or a more developed sign (to that sign that he creates, Peirce calls him “interpreter of the first sign”). It takes the place of something: of its object.
Linguistic sign.- For Saussure, an entity in which a concept, the meaning, and an acoustic image are associated, the signifier. It is a psychic entity that manifests itself in the production and emission of messages in communication processes .// From the form, interdependence relationship between a form of content and a form of expression.
Syllable.- Letter or set of letters in whose pronunciation a single voice emission is used.
Free syllable.- The one finished in vowel.
Tonic syllable.- The one that has a prosodic accent.
Syllable locked.- The finished consonant.
Syllogism.- Argument whose last statement is deduced from the previous two.
Symbol.- Representation of an abstract notion by a material entity.// For Pierce, a sign determined by its dynamic object only in the sense that it will be interpreted (which implies arbitrariness).
Symmetry.- Repetition of the same syntactic structure, in two continuous phrases.
Syncopa .- Suppression of one or more sounds within a word.
Syncretism.- Concentration of two or more grammatical functions in a single morpheme.
Synchrony.- Study of a state of language, in a given moment, analyzer of the relations between the elements that appear in a coexistent way.
Sinology.- Study of the language and culture of China.
Synonymy.- Coincidence of two terms in the set of denotative features
Syntax.- Relationships of the words in the sentence .// Analysis of the combinations of which the words are object to obtain superior units (groups, phrases or sentences).
Systole.- Change of place of the accent of a word when it passes to a previous syllable.
Overdub – Word that is accentuated in the syllable before the last to last.
Sociolect.- Set of peculiar linguistic uses of a social group or of speakers.
Sociolinguistics.- Study of linguistic systems in their social context.
Solecisms.- Morphological and syntactic errors.
Occlusive sounds.- The joints in which the organs establish a complete contact that momentarily interrupts the expiration of the exhaled air.
Sound.- Step from a deaf consonant to sound.
Sound.- Sound that is articulated with vibration of the vocal cords.
Sorabo.- Slavic language spoken by this people.
Deaf.- Articulated sound without vibration of the vocal cords.
Subjunctive.- Verbal mode used to express the speaker‘s personal attitude to the action, presenting it subjectively.
Subordination.- Dependency relationship between two elements of different grammatical category.
Suffix.- Morpheme that, together with a base in its final part, forms a derivative.
Subject.- One of the parts of the sentence. Word that designates the being (person, animal or thing) of which something is affirmed or denied.
Superstrat .- It is attributed to the phenomena produced by a language brought to another linguistic domain in a process of invasion and that disappears or is not adopted before the firmness of the aboriginal language.
Substitute.- Linguistic substitution.
Noun.- Word that denotes the subject or object of a verb.// Subordinate clause that has the function of subject or object.
Substrate .- Remains of a language substituted by another in a given territory, which are observable in the dominant one. // Influence of a previous language on another.
Taboo.- Socially censored matter referred to by circumlocutions and using euphemisms.
Tautogram.- Composition in which all words begin with the same letter.
Tautology.- Unnecessary repetition of the same concept.
Tecnicismo.- Set of technical voices (or each of these voices) used in the language of an art, a science, a profession, etc.
Topic.- In the Grammar of the Text, what is given in the speaker’s conscience at the time of the elocution, which may or may not coincide with the grammatical subject; that which contains what is already known or budget and that has the least information in a context or in a situation of enunciation.
Term.- Word or construction that is introduced by a preposition or upon which the action of the verb rests.
Text.- Sequence of sentences linked by logical-semantic relations .// Higher expressive unit that presents a content and structure.
Tilde.- Graphical representation of the intensity accent. Its use is subject to spelling rules.
Tonic.- Sound or group of sounds that carries the intensity accent in a word or phrase.
Tone.- Language ability to evoke emotion (the comic, the tragic, the satirical, the melancholic, the jocular, the grotesque, …).
Topic.- Subject or issue that by force of repeating it, everyone considers obvious.
Place- name.- Own name of a place or geographical accident.
Locks.- Syllable ending in consonant.
Transmitter.- Element that transforms the message into a signal that is sent by the channel.
Triptongo.- Set of three vowels that form a single syllable.
Ultra Correction.- Phenomenon that occurs when the speaker interprets a correct form of language as incorrect and restores it to the form he believes normal.
Umbro.- Italic language spoken in Umbria.
Melodic unit.- Minimum portion of the speech with a determined musical form, being at the same time a significant part in itself within the total meaning of the sentence.
Lexical units.- Linguistic forms that refer to certain plots of reality.
Linguistic universals .- Characteristics that are considered common to all languages..
Use.- Term introduced by Horacio in Ad Pisones , is the synchronous consideration of the relationship between the signifiers and the meanings of a language.
Uvular.- Sound in whose joint the uvula intervenes.
Valencia.- In Tesniere, the number of actants that a verb can have.
Variant.- Linguistic form that differs from another that is taken as a reference.
Variety.- Dialect, form of a typical language of a place or social group.
Diaphase varieties of the language.- Linguistic modalities that are determined by the will of the speakers. They occur when the form of expression or registration is modified consciously and deliberately for extra-linguistic reasons.
Diastratic varieties of the language.- Linguistic modalities that occur in the same geographical place and that are determined by reasons of social type (age, sex, class, etc.)
Diatopic varieties of the language.- Are those that are produced due to the different linguistic modalities that occur as a result of geographical factors. They are dialects and you speak local.
Velar.- Sound whose articulation is characterized by the approach or contact of the back of the tongue and the veil of the palate.
Verb.- Part of the sentence that expresses action, passion or state.// Word that indicates the event and includes the participants .// For Amado Alonso and Henríquez Ureña, special form of the language with which we think of reality as a behavior of the subject. This reality can be in different ways: action (sewing), inaction (lying), accident (falling), quality (bleaching) and position (decolling) .// In Scholasticism, meaningful word of something through action or the passion .// For Guillaume, semantema that implies and explains the time.// In Jespersen, form of rank and secondary function, common with the adjective, although differentiable in its morphemes. It affects the subject through the person and number formants, in which it necessarily agrees with that.
Opinion verbs.- definition, those verbs that allow the speaker to inform the listener of their beliefs about something.
Defective verbs.- They are those that only allow the conjugation of certain times or people, such as “soler”.
Pronominal verbs.- Are those that are always conjugated with a pronoun attached to the verb itself.
Verlen.- A species of French jargon that consists in reversing the order of syllables.
Likelihood.- What seems true and credible.
Vibrant.- Consonant whose joint is characterized by rapid contact (single or multiple) between the articulation organs.
Virtuemas.- Variable, connotative semes. They represent everything redundant that carries a lexical definition.
Vocables.- For Buyssens, kind of signs that can appear alone.
Vocabulary .- Set of words available in a language.// Part of the lexicon that each speaker or group of speakers uses to express themselves.
Vocalization.- Step to vowel of a consonant.
Vocative.- Use of the name of the person or personified person to whom we address the word.
Patrimonial voices.- Words from Latin and primitive languages.
Web.- Abbreviated name of World Wide Web , a computer communication network that allows easy access to the internet.
Zeugma .- Deletion of a word whose meaning is understood as having been previously expressed.