The term community has several possible uses. The most common has to do with a group of human beings that has some type of common traits (such as language, customs, values, etc.), or some type of encounter context. On the other hand, in biology and ecology, it refers to a set of living beings of different species that interact in a given area. In this article we will discuss the types of the community.
The term comes from the Latin communitas and initially referred to people who live together, who share interests, and live under the same rules. This sense is preserved to this day. Everything related to the communities is called community.
Through a community, people can share language, religion, profession, nationality, age, sexual orientation, political ideology, among others.
Communities do not have fixed borders, so the definition of belonging or not to a specific community usually depends on the person himself. But in the same way, the lives of individuals reach many areas. For this reason, many people belong to two or more communities.
Membership is also difficult to define. Belonging to a certain social group does not imply actively participating in the activities that arise from it.
Although there are people who do not want to belong to a community, there are essential elements such as nationality and dependence on an economic group for subsistence, which cannot be avoided.
Communities can range from very broad elements such as the planet as a whole to very small groups such as a group of neighbors. The concept is capable of encompassing many types of social groups, which are constituted as communities.
The concept of the community depends on the discipline and the perspective from which it is approached. For example, each of these disciplines has a specific definition:
- Ecology. A community is a set of living beings linked to each other in a given area, through food or trophic chains.
- Policy. It is a human group organized, like countries, around the realization of a common goal.
- Administration. It is a synonym for company or company.
All these concepts have, however, the common denominator of the conjunction of individuals in a larger organized unit, in which their parts always have a mutual relationship.
Within communities, of whatever type, there are relationships between their parts, which can be called community relationships. These relationships are not necessarily hierarchical but are usually considered equals.
Community relations are often considered those that take place outside the states of the world. Among them are those that come from the mutual support of popular communities, or of the individuals that make up civil society.
In the case of ecology, community relations are instead the dynamics of predation, commensalism, and symbiosis. They occur between species that make up, among other things, the food chain of the ecosystem. Community with types and concepts
Main types of community
Communities stand as a group in which people who identify or belong to the same structure. Here are 9 types of community below with their characteristics.
It is the largest type of community that exists, because all human beings belong to it. It is made up of all the inhabitants of planet Earth.
Belonging to this community is inherent to the condition of birth, and the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are tied to it.
The generality of this concept means that its application is not widely used, although when it is, it is to reinforce the sense of integration.
When this term is used it refers to scientists who are grouped in different associations. Even when these do not exist, the term is used to refer to scientists in general.
One of the main uses given to the term is when there are studies that coincide in many places, or when a theory is proposed that has not been refuted.
In this circumstance, it is then affirmed that there is a consensus of the scientific community on a certain subject.
It is a general term that unites different people for economic reasons. It is applied in different circumstances. For example, a family can apply an economic community regime by sharing all its expenses and managing a single fund.
Also, this concept is used for the unions that are made between sovereign states that share certain sectors of the economy.
One of its greatest exponents was the predecessor of the European Union: the European Economic Communities.
It is mainly applied in the field of education and teaching. It refers mainly to the community that forms the entire educational institution, in which teachers and students are involved.
Through this model, teachers do not have the highest authority, but decisions are made by consensus, imitating a family model in the classroom and leaving behind the rigid power relationship that superimposes a teacher over his students.
5-community of neighbors
The inhabitants of a building or the same residential complex form a community of neighbors, because they share the same premises as a residence space.
It is one of the smallest communities and has the characteristic of always being present in all societies.
In addition, the term community of neighbors is also applied to the institution that the neighbors themselves make up to safeguard their rights and resolve any disputes that arise. It is generally made up of a president, vice president, treasurer and members.
All people who exercise a profession are part of a guild. Therefore, a trade union community is one that is made up of all the professionals who have graduated in a certain subject or those who have practiced a trade for many years.
The union communities are organized in schools and unions, which defend the rights of the workers in their area, as well as fight for their labor benefits.
The academy stands as those educational institutions that impart different knowledge to the students who study there.
That is why an academic community is made up of any person who lives in an educational institution.
For example, in a university, an academic community is made up of professors and students. Sometimes, the concept includes all workers in the area, such as administrative staff and workers.
All citizens have the right to a name and a nationality. For this reason, all states are obliged to grant a nationality to the people to whom it corresponds.
In today’s world people always have a nationality and therefore belong to a national community.
This implies that they must comply with all the duties and rights inherent in the legislation of that State. One of the expressions of citizenship is obtaining identity documents such as passports.
Also, communities can be defined according to people’s sexual orientation. This is the case of the community of gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transsexuals, who have historically represented an oppressed group and who have become a community to fight for their rights.
The LGBT community also includes intersex, transgender, pansexual, asexual, queer , and anyone who identifies with more genders than conventionally accepted.
For the synthesis of all these categories, the term LGBT+ has also been positioned, which includes all those other minority sectors that maintain claims regarding their rights.
Roles of a community
Human communities are generally organized around a common purpose, which is variable. Its members often share passions, needs, or desires, and their association derives a greater possibility of achieving these purposes, in whatever way. Community with types and concepts
For example, an artistic community includes all those artists and scholars of art in a country, a region, or the world. In this way, it gives them a capacity for organization, joint voice, or knowledge exchange that is always for their mutual benefit or representation.
Importance of communities
Living beings, and especially human beings, cannot live in isolation. In this sense, the formation of communities of all kinds occurs to us in a natural way, being gregarious beings, and we value them as a form of accompaniment in life, the construction of joint tools and mutual appreciation.
That is why we people like to belong to a certain community, the approval of those who make it up together with us is valuable to us, and the debate about the way in which we want to conduct our communities is so important.
Communities should not be confused with communes, which is the name given in many Spanish-speaking countries to the smallest territorial or urban units in which a city can be organized. In other words, these are smaller administrative divisions that, grouped together, make up larger units, and that can be equivalent to municipalities or councils. Community with types and concepts
The new information technologies and the world of cyberspace (or world 2.0) have brought with them profound changes in the physical way of socializing and contacting people. Among them, the possibility of creating remote communities, of quick and differentiated contact, without the rigors that previously implied mass meetings, exchange of letters, etc.
These new type of community that emerged at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st is known as virtual communities. An example of this is discussion forums on the Internet, chat rooms, or social networks. These instruments allow the formation of human relationships and the exchange of opinions and interests, through an Internet connection.
The utopian communities were forms of association based on solidarity, mutual commitment, companionship, and collective property, which emerged during the 19th and early 20th centuries as an alternative to early capitalist society, based on competitiveness, selfishness, and accumulation. They were involved with the idea of communism and socialism.
The first utopian communities arose in France during the 18th century: the famous Paris Commune that played a vital role in the French Revolution. He then inspired utopian communities that sought to isolate themselves and resist the consumer society. They were common in the US, Europe, and Australia, and today they are called Eco villas since they have an organized global network.
A perfect example of community is the so-called international community or concert of countries. In it, in principle, all the nations of the world are taken into account through their diplomatic representation, to try to conduct themselves and negotiate reciprocally for the benefit of the majority.
In practice, however, there are several international communities depending on the degree of integration of the region or the status of official recognition that a nation has. This is proof that it is a community that is governed by its own laws and whose members are, in one way or another, interconnected. Community with types and concepts