Language and Linguistics

6 components of reading/definition/origin/detail


Reading is a technique of understanding and decoding preset signs in a language and stored in a medium, either through written words, images, or other types of representations. 6 components of reading?

Reading and writing are two sides of the same coin, fundamental in the cultural and intellectual development of humanity since they constitute the possibility of registering reality and recovering it in another place and time and even by a different person.

It is a complex human process, which is commonly carried out through sight, although there are special forms of reading (such as the braille method) that do not depend on this specific sense. Numerous benefits are attributed to it in individual human development, since it is the fundamental tool for the transmission of knowledge and, therefore, for learning and communication.

Origin of the reading

The origin of reading is uncertain in the history of humanity, but logically it would go hand in hand with the invention of writing since one cannot exist without the other.

In any case, they are man-made technologies based on their natural and intrinsic ability to generate language.

The first attempts at writing occurred in the form of hieroglyphics, around 5000 years before Christ, long before the creation of the first phonic alphabets (representing the sounds of the language) about 3500 years before Christ.

Types of reading

Two types of reading are recognized:

  • Aloud.  It is the oldest and consists of reading aloud, pronouncing each word read from the text.
  • Silent It does not require the intervention of another part of the body other than the eyes, and it occurs in silence. 6 components of reading?

Reading Components

All reading requires a text: a body of interpretable signs that enclose the message to be interpreted.

Such text can consist of numerous forms of signs or symbols, images or icons (such as hieroglyphs) more or less abstract, whether they try to represent visually their referent (such as ideograms) or they represent sounds through a more complex process of abstraction (like the letters of the alphabet). 6 components of reading?


Written texts are encoded using a specific language or language, which both the scribe and the future reader must know for communication to take place.

Reading a text in another language, especially a very distant one, highlights this: the difference between a text and a doodle often depends on the education of the reader.


Since written texts have a beginning and an end, they must be read in the correct order to fully understand them.

This order works in a specific spatial direction, for example, Westerners read from left to right, while in other latitudes it is read from right to left or top to bottom.


Similarly, reading occurs one word or sign at a time, accumulating their meanings to recompose the overall meaning. 6 components of reading?

The correct interpretation of the message will then depend on the specific sequence of wordswords cannot be skipped, nor can one return to those that were left behind.

Reading, like time, runs in only one direction.

4-Reading speed

The speed of reading a text depends on many factors, including the ability of the reader. However, reading faster is not always reading better or reading more.

Usually, it is considered that the average speed of reading will depend on the purposes for which it is done, for example:

  • To memorize what was read. It is usually read more slowly: less than 100 words per minute.
  • Learning. A more standard reading, such as an informative one on any topic, runs between 100 and 200 words per minute.
  • Leisure or relaxed. A more relaxed recreational reading can range from 200 to 400 words per minute.
  • Speed ​​reading. There are particularly fast reading techniques, which allow reaching 700 words per minute. 6 components of reading?


Reading is an integral part of the human educational apparatus. It is estimated according to Unesc (2010) that a percentage of close to 85% of the world’s adult population is literate (can read and write), especially in industrialized and developing countries.

This is not the reality in many African and Asian Minor countries where poverty margins impede or hinder education and dramatically decrease the literacy rate.

6-Reading comprehension

The ability to interpret and retain meanings, as well as the ability to reach deeper and less obvious layers of meaning, is called reading comprehension or reading competence.

This ability grows with practice and allows you to reach more complex and developed forms of thought.

7-Special types of reading

There are other ways of reading, which do not involve words or verbal language. Among them we can mention:

  • Musical reading. The musical notation uses its own language to record the specific sounds that must be made, in order and sequence, with one or more musical instruments to reproduce a specific melody.
  • Scientific readingMathematical, physical, or chemical formulas and equations reproduce their processes (mathematical operations, physical formulas, or chemical reactions) through specialized and technical language that can also be read to understand the description of physical or imaginary reality.
  • Braille reading. Despite being actually a replacement for ordinary verbal writing, designed for the blind, it is a special form of reading that uses touch rather than sight. 6 components of reading?

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