A neologism is a word, word, term or expression that is introduced or created in a certain language. They are born from the need to express a new concept of reality, such as “bitcoin”, “clicking”, “selfie” or “emoji”. The dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) defines it as “a word, a meaning or a new twist that is accepted within a specific language”. This resource is characterized by the way in which it is born or is formed, and can originate, for example, by adapting terms from other languages or by linking words that already have life in a language. Neologism concept types and examples
Technology, science and communications are the main creators of neologisms. It is necessary to bear in mind that these cease to be a new twist on a language after a certain time of use (ten years) or when the Academy normalizes its usefulness by adding it to the dictionary.
For example, “anesthesia” or “radar” were neologisms from other times, being already fully accepted in our vocabulary. While, terms such as “postureo”, “crush”, “frappe”, “escrache” or “post-truth” are recent neologisms.
As defined at the beginning, a neologism is any word that arises in a certain language to fill a gap or give a name to a new concept. It also originates to respond to the linguistic needs of a certain group or to an idea, as long as the language allows it. Neologism concept types and examples
In the words of Andreína Adelstein, researcher at the Human Development Institute of the UNGS, “this resource allows modifying and invigorating the language in which it is applied, and its novel character has a determined period of ten years, as agreed by the academics of language”.
Etymologically the term neologism is derived from the Greek language. It is made up of neo which means “new” and a logo which is “word”. Hence, the word is translated as “new word” or more broadly as “a word that describes an innovative or recent object, situation or action within a language”.
Types of neologisms
The neologisms are given as follows:
1-Neologisms of form
This type of neologism originates from the morphological transformations of words or words that are already in the language. Example: photojournalism, social christian, liberal democrat or popemobile.
In this case, it refers to words that, although they are already part of a language, are taken in the same language with another meaning or sense to designate elements or aspects of other areas. Example: search engine, viral, parquet or virus. Neologism concept types and examples
Stylistic neologisms are those words that are applied to give a more sensitive and positive tone to an expression or term in relation to those that are commonly used. Otherwise, they are words that are destined to change the perception of things. Example: deceased, dark, blind or gig.
This classification of neologisms is related to the need to add words to a language because there is no other way to designate a particular object or situation. Foreign words fall into this classification. In general, these types of terms allow communication to be more dynamic. Example: kilo, giraffe, caterpillar or fireproof.
These keep are related to all those words that describe or define some aspects related to society, to the moral and cultural actions of man. Example: committee, strike, assembly or collective agreement.
This type of neologism is related to the twists that some words produce in the fields of technology and science. They almost always come from other languages, in the case of Spanish from English. This classification is one of the most used today. Example: scanner, server, selfie or cyberspace.
Tools for creating words
A neologism can be formed through various tools. The most common are defined below:
It refers to the formation of words through the combination of two or more terms that already exist within a language. The union of words produces new meanings, and therefore expands the lexicon. Example: Latin + America = Latin America.
The words that are created through this resource are those to which a prefix or suffix is added to the base term. Example: tele-objective.
It refers to the words that are born through the sum of a derivation and composition. Example: by + god + ero = beggar.
Words by acronym are born from the union of the initials of several terms, which in turn simplify communication. Example: UN: United Nations Organization. Neologism concept types and examples
Examples of neologisms
Astroturfing (generating favorable comments on social media).
Balconing (jumping between the balconies of a hotel).
Binge (watching several chapters in a row in a television series).
Bitcoin (decentralized cryptocurrency).
Blogosphere (blogging communities).
Bloguer (person who writes in a blog )
Bookcrossing (sharing books in public places).
Booktrailer (cinematic trailer of a book).
Brainstorming (group work that facilitates the emergence of ideas).
Burnout (work stress).
Bullying (school bullying).
Cheater (player who uses tricks to cheat in a video game).
Cyberbullying (cyber bullying of a person).
Cookie (web information stored in the user’s browser).
Cosplay (fashion for designing and dressing in fictional character costumes).
Crossplay (dressing up as a character of the opposite sex).
Crowdfunding (collective cooperation to get money online).
Customize (adapt or personalize something to personal taste).
Drone (unmanned aerial vehicle).
Electrolinera (electric charging station for vehicles).
Escrache (demonstration near the home of the accused ).
Fake (manipulated or false audiovisual medium).
Fanboy (enthusiast of a certain brand).
Flashmob (action organized in a public place).
Follower (person who receives tweets from another user of this network).
Fracking (hydraulic fracturing).
Frikada (extravagant and excessive behavior of a geek).
Geek (person whose hobbies, behavior or wardrobe are unusual).
Furry (dressing up as an animal).
Gamer (video game player).
Geek (person fascinated by computers and technology).
Gosu (elite gamer of video game).
Hacker (person with a passion for computer security).