Carrying out a bibliography, without a doubt, turns out to be a task that is not easy ; given that various factors must be taken into consideration, of which they should not be forgotten so that the data included are totally faithful. Also, it must be taken into consideration that there are many ways in which the bibliography can be removed depending on the subject matter. That is, for example the bibliography of scientific works can be done in different ways and all will be equally validated. How to make a bibliography of a work?
Considering that the evolution in the way of making citation about bibliographic reference has changed considerably, that is to say, now it happens that web pages are also taken into account. A bibliography does not only refer to when consultations are made through books studied directly in physics. It happens that it is also possible to find web pages from which information is taken or if you can access publications such as digital magazines or books in different formats to view. In any of these cases, the address used to access this information must be included.
For any type of work, the system used to make the bibliography is equally accepted. However, you have to keep the same format. Understanding it differently, here hyphens, quotation marks, italic letters, underline or bold are used, each of these modes should only be used for a specific case.
There are several systems used for the realization of a bibliography , and although they are different between them they maintain some similarities, which will be studied later in this article. We will try to explain what are the differences and similarities that the bibliography of both books and web pages share , as well as the norms usually used to use them in a job and the APA norms.
How to make a bibliography of a work
In a written work, the bibliography is used in order to cite people whose texts and ideas have been used as a reference for our research work. In general, the bibliography is located in the final part and it is a very important part of the whole work; since here it is shown how extensive the research and data collection work has been. Now, it is also possible to include the reference of other works similar to the one that is being elaborated, that is to say, it is not only about including publications, magazines or web pages; but also works carried out by researchers and university students such as graduate theses. How to make a bibliography of a work?
In these cases, a series of rules are applied, which help to organize the large amount of information much better. By taking into account other common rules such as the use of abbreviations, as well as indicating the pages where the checkpoints used are located together with the year of publication, they help to better understand the origin of the source. It is important to remember that these works are usually very extensive and therefore it is necessary to verify the origin of all information contained therein. Here is an example of how to make a bibliography of a university work published by a university:
Although usually the most used format is the following:
- Author: Surname, Name.
- Resource title: «Between quotes».
- Media type: [cd-rom, dvd, online].
- Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication, date of update, [date of citation].
- Available on the Web:…
Any work that has been taken as a reference must have the corresponding credits , since it is possible that that work has made changes in its initial sources of information. In this way, it can be specified as the one that has been followed the same line of information. The format is as follows:
Author (Surname, Name). “Resource title”, [type of resource]. Creation date, update date, [date of appointment]. Website address.
Note: The type of resource can be a CD-ROM, DVD, online, etc … It is something that must always be indicated in any compilation of sources. How to make a bibliography of a work?
How to make a web page bibliography
The inclusion in recent dates of web pages where the bibliography is found, has also started to teach norms in relation to these to create a format that everyone understands equally. At the beginning, at the time of citing them, certain problems were created since placing the link is not enough or a correct way to indicate what our source of information has been . In addition, this creates a problem to understand who has been the author of said content; as well as the date of publication. In addition, it includes the possibility that we are consulting a page that has previously copied content from another.
While we may know what the page title is as the url, in most cases this is not accepted as a reliable little house. Here is an example of what a quote from a web page is:
Pérez, M. and López, M. (1999): «The literature of the romantic genre». UNA, Department of Letters and Philosophy (Spain). [Internet document available at http://una.es/let/textos/litroman.html].
In general, the aforementioned format is indicated for cases of information obtained from the Internet.
How to make a bibliography of a book
Usually, when shouting a book, the most relevant information related to the name and surname of the author of the book is taken as the main most relevant information , as well as the full title. Also, the year is included, the city where it was published, the publisher and in some cases the number of pages and copies thereof is included. How to make a bibliography of a work?
Specifically, when taking the author’s data in the first instance, the surname is placed followed by the first name. In this order they must be placed, they can be separated by one, and they can be separated by a comma or a hyphen. In case there is more than one author, the surnames are placed respecting the same order in which the book was published followed by the names, for which it is more common to only use the first letter. Here’s an example:
Rodríguez, Milena and Roque, María. (1978): History of the machine and the beginnings of the industrial revolution. Tauros.
The title of the book will be placed immediately after the author’s data. It is used that it is in italics or also underlined. It is important to put the full title; although in case it is very extensive occupying an entire line and it is only possible to place it until reaching the first point. Capitalization is not necessary. In the case of the year, it is placed specifically when the book was published, although sometimes it is used to put first the year of the first edition followed by the year of the copy that was used for the consultation or research.
These years must be placed within parentheses and separated by a hyphen . As for the city where it was published, it does not usually coincide with the city where it was printed, it should be taken as more important where the offices where the publishing house is located, therefore it is where it is published.
How to make an APA bibliography How to make a bibliography of a work?
Internationally, the APA standards are known as those that are taken into account when conducting research to cite both books and various types of texts. Through them, it is possible to classify and give more details in relation to the books that have been used during an investigation. Therefore, they facilitate the work of those who carry out these tasks, especially in the case of those that are very long. Equally; When working with multiple authors, following these rules makes it a bit easier to organize. How to make a bibliography of a work?
These rules must be followed very carefully; since these are many and have various specific details, which by not complying with them exactly leads to confusion. These norms contemplate an endless number of rules, but some of these are more outstanding than others; since they formulate the most relevant aspects when making a bibliography, especially when referring to books.
One of the many APA standards are those related to the use of the parenthesis format. It happens that these signs are essential when making a bibliography, since they allow to identify with more precision the names of the authors that will be cited. In parentheses , the year in which the work to be highlighted is published or written is also placed . Also, the parentheses are used to make a verbatim quote indicating the author by his surname followed by a comma and the year of publication.
Make a bibliography related to an article published in a book or scientific journal in the field of study to which we are dedicated; it also presents some rules as in other cases described above . Let us, for example, find a scientific publication which is cited for example as follows:
Carreño, José (1992): “The chemical composition of the cells of aquatic plants”, Notebooks of biology, chemistry and physics, 45 pp. 11-24.
In this case, it is indicated that the article that has been selected to be analyzed and cited is in number 45 of the journal; and that it also extends from page 11 to 24. It begins by citing the surname and then the name of the author , followed by the year of publication of said article.
Sometimes books are written where a series of several authors work on different aspects related to the same topic. That is, for example, if one writes about Shakespeare, one of the authors focuses on his private life, another will work on his initial works, another on his theatrical experience, another on his professional colleagues at the same time and so on. In these cases, the compilation as well as the coordination of all these works in the same work is in charge of a person who is the editor . When this happens, the name of the publisher or editors in charge of the book consulted is placed. How to make a bibliography of a work?