Derivation is defined as the process of attaching an affix to a base. It is a regular procedure of word formation, which allows languages to designate semantically related concepts with others, in a certain sense considered primitive, by adding affixes. The existence of the derivation makes it possible to have a lexicon that allows the attribution of numerous meanings, from a much smaller number of roots or lexemes. Derivation in linguistics
The derivation is a regular procedure word formation that allows languages designate semantically related concepts with other in a sense considered primitive by adding suffixes (eg knife of knife ). The existence of the derivation allows to have a lexicon that allows to designate numerous senses from a much smaller number of roots or lexemes . Also the derivation is the main source of new words in many languages.
The shunt is similar to certain flexion forms , since both would use morphemes added to the root to express differences. However, flexion does not involve changing referents but rather the added marks have a strictly grammatical purpose. On the other hand, the derivation resembles changes in meaning to the composition .
The derivation is a set of a primitive word together with a prefix or a suffix
In the field of linguistics, the concept of derivation refers to one of the processes of new word formation . This process has a general criterion.
Keep in mind that different words come from the same primitive word. Thus, all words that come from a primitive are known as derived words. In this way, with the primitive word sun, I can form a series of derived words, such as solace, sunstroke, solar, sunny, etc. For the derivation process to be possible it is necessary to apply a series of rules. Derivation in linguistics
- Demonstrate > demonstra-tion > demonstrable; if, on the other hand, this modification does not occur, it is called a homogeneous derivation:
- White > whitish-white. The first occurs when it is derived through suffixes, while in the second we find derivatives from prefixes, for example:
- Paint > repaint; proper > improper, nor is it transformed when using augmentative, diminutive and derogatory suffixes:
woman > big woman, book > little book, house > shack, etc.
Here are examples of English derivation patterns and their suffixes:
- adjective– to- noun : -ness ( slow → slowness )
- adjective-to- verb : -in ( weak → weaken )
- adjective-to-adjective: -ish ( red → reddish )
- adjective to adverb : -ly ( personal → personally )
- noun to adjective : -al ( recreation → recreation )
- noun-to-verb: -fy ( glory → glorify )
- verb-to-adjective: -able ( drink → drinkable )
- verb-to-noun ( abstract ): -ance ( deliver → release )
- verb-to-noun ( agent ): -er ( write → writer )
However, derived affixes do not necessarily alter the lexical category; they can simply change the meaning of the base and leave the category unchanged. A prefix ( write → rewrite ; lord → over-lord ) rarely changes the lexical category in English. The prefix does not apply to adjectives ( healthy → unhealthy ) and some verbs ( do → undo ), but rarely to nouns. Some exceptions are the derived prefixes en- and be- . En- (replaced by em- beforelabials ) is usually a transitive marker on verbs, but can also be applied to adjectives and nouns to form transitive verbs: circle (verb) → encircle (verb) but rich (adj) → enrich (verb), large (adj) → enlarge (verb), rapture (noun) → enrapture (verb), slave (noun) → enslave (verb). Derivation in linguistics
When the derivation occurs without any change in the word, as in the conversion of the noun breakfast to the verb for breakfast , it is known as zero conversion or derivation.
The derivation that results in a noun can be called a nominalization . It may involve the use of an affix (as with employ → employee ), or it may occur through conversion (as with the derivation of the noun run from the verb to run ). In contrast, a derivation that results in a verb may be called a verbalization (as from the noun butter to the verb butter ).
Derivation and inflection
Generally speaking, the inflection is applied in more or less regular patterns to all members of a part of speech (for example, almost all verbs in English add -s for the third person singular in the present tense), while the derivation follows less consistent patterns (for example, the nominalizing suffix -ity can be used with the adjectives modern and dense , but not with open or strong ). However, it is important to note that derivations and inflections can share homonyms, that is, morphemes .They have the same sound, but not the same meaning. For example, when the affix -er is added to an adjective, as in small-er , it acts as an inflection, but when it is added to a verb, as in cook-er , it acts as a derivation. Derivation in linguistics
As mentioned above, a derivation can produce a new word (or a new part of speech), but it doesn’t have to. For example, the derivation of the word “common” to “uncommon” is a derivational morpheme but does not change the part of speech (adjective).
An important distinction between derived and inflectional morphology lies in the content/function of a listeme. Derivative morphology changes both the meaning and content of a listeme, while inflectional morphology does not change the meaning, but changes the function.
A non-exhaustive list of English derivational morphemes: -ful, -able, im-, un-, -ing, -er
A non-exhaustive list of inflectional morphemes in English: -er, -est, -ing, -en, -ed, -s