Grammar categories with description and examples
The grammar categories are each of the classes of words that we can find in our language and that have different properties that make them unique. In English, we can find a total of 9 categories that in turn are included in two large groups:
- Variable words
- Invariable words
Variable Grammar categories
They are those that present some type of gender and number inflection. That is, inflectional morphemes can be added to these words. They are as follows:
Invariable Grammar categories
The invariable Grammar categories, on the other hand, are all those that do not admit inflectional morphemes, that is, they remain unchanged in terms of gender and number in a sentence. The invariable Grammar categories are:
Examples of grammar categories
We are going to start with the invariable Grammar categories. As we have already pointed out, these do not admit any kind of gender or number inflection.
The prepositions are words that function as a connection with other words in the same sentence. These are always invariable and function as a prepositional phrase within the phrase. The prepositions are A, before, under, fits, with, against, from, from, during, in, between, towards, to, through, for, by, according to, without, so, on, after. Next, we are going to see some examples of prepositions:
- The vase was on the table.
- I do not see from more than a year.
- You can go up to the tree and come back.
The adverbs are a category of invariable words used to indicate different circumstances within a sentence such as: time, place, mode. etc. that work as a circumstantial complement. Let’s look at some examples of adverbs in these sentences:
- Alba had eaten too much cake.
- Do it like this .
- Miguel came quickly .
Interjections are Grammar categories composed of invariable words that express a state of mind or seek the attention of the receiver. These are generally pronounced with an exclamatory tone and appear between exclamation marks. Some of these interjections can be observed in the following sentences:
- Ay ! That has hurt me.
- Hey , wait a minute!
- Alto ! You cannot continue to circulate around here.
The conjunctions are a grammatical category consists of words used for different words relate to each other. In other words, conjunctions work as a link between different premises. Within the conjunctions we can find several types:
- Adversative : but, more, but … As an example, this sentence. He told me he would come, but he is running very late.
- Causes : because, why, how, well … In this sentence we find one of them. She was angry with him because he had not informed her of the matter.
- Comparison : so, so much, that, like … Let’s see an example. Irene has liked both go to the pool and the ice cream was eaten later.
- Concessive : although … We can see it in the following example. She came to the birthday party even though she was very tired.
- Concessive : although … An example would be the following. I will not go to your house even if you ask me to.
- Conditionals : yes… Take a look at this example. If I had money, I would buy that house.
- Consecutive : so, therefore, that, then … An example is the following. I’ve already finished work, so I ‘ll go for a walk to relax.
- Copulatives : y, e, ni … Let’s see the following example. Alberto and Ana went to the movies.
- Trade-offs : o, u… This example will help you understand them. To be able to go you must take the bus or the subway.
- Finals : for… Let’s see an example. These boots are designed for the snow.
- Temporary : when, before, while … Let’s see an example. He was quietly reading on the terrace when the phone rang.
Next we are going to show you which are the variable grammar categories and some examples of each of them.
The noun is a grammatical category formed by variable words that serve to name people, animals, things, ideas, qualities… .etc. Nouns always have gender and number and are of different types. Next we will see what types of nouns exist and examples of each of them:
- Abstract : Its beauty is not of this world.
- Collectives : We saw a flock on that mountain.
- Commons : This house is very large.
- Concrete : The book was on the table .
- Accountants : He offered her a pen to take the exam .
- Countless : The most important thing is health .
- Singles : The chair was by the window .
- Own : Angel will come early tomorrow.
Determinants are words that always accompany a name and serve to better specify its meaning. The determinants can be:
- Articles . The, the, the… An example. The man was sitting silently.
- Demonstrative . This, this, that … For example, the following sentence. This car belongs to my neighbor.
- Possessive . My, you, our… Let’s look at an example. I have left you my favorite book.
- Undefined . Some, no, any … For example. Will you ever come see me ?
- Numerals . One, two, first … Let’s look at an example. He came first in the competition.
- Interrogative and exclamatory . What, how much… We find an example in the following sentence. How lucky you are !
The adjectives are Grammar categories in which variables are words used to express a quality of a noun to the accompanying. These have gender and number Within the adjectives we can find different degrees that express the greater or lesser intensity of the quality to which they refer. The grades are as follows:
- Positive : when the quality is expressed without intensity, for example, Jaime is tall .
- Comparative : the quality is compared to another. In this case we find the comparatives of superiority (Jaime is taller than Enrique); Equality (Jaime is as tall as Miguel); inferiority (Jaime is less tall than Manuel); Superlative (Jaime is very tall ).
Pronouns are words that are used as a substitute for a noun. Therefore they will perform the same functions as these within a sentence. They have gender and number like nouns and can be of several types:
- Personal : I, you, him, we… Let’s see an example. You are at home.
- Relative. What, who, which … An example. This kid is the one who goes to class with my brother.
- Demonstrative. This, that, that, this … Pay attention to this example. Please can I have this ?
- Undefined. Someone, something, nothing … In this sentence you will find the following example. Has someone done my homework for me?
- Interrogative and exclamatory. What, how much, who… Let’s look at an example. How much has this house cost you?
The verb is the grammatical category that serves to express an action that is in process or a state. The verb will always be the core of the predicate and must agree with the subject of the sentence. Verbs have a root and an ending that will provide the grammatical meaning such as time, mode, person, number, aspect … etc. Let’s look at some examples of verbs in sentences:
- The boy was tired.
- I went to the supermarket early.
- I don’t want to eat that.