Dialectology and its areas of Study

Dialectology and its description


Branch of linguistics whose object of study is the dialect , also known as a diatopic or geographical variation of a language. Dialectology is a descriptive discipline that explains the phenomena of phonetic changes that a language undergoes in a specific region, and at a time ( synchronous study ) or specific times (diachronic study) . Dialectology is a phonetic and phonological explanation that characterizes the speech of a region and studies its achievements and the distribution of phonetic variables in a region, such as the distributions of the phonic segment and the accentual nature of the syllable among other characteristics; It is a real description of the speech facts.


Origin, history or training

It is composed of the Greek word dialectós ( διάλεκτος) and the Greek suffix -logy (λογία) , which means knowledge, treatise or science Thus, we can deduce that dialectology is the science dedicated to explaining and comparing dialects , understood as linguistic derivations of a common trunk.

For about two thousand years the word dialect was used by the Greeks to refer to varieties of Greek, there are also studies from the twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries that can be considered as antecedents of dialectology. Other important antecedents are the classification of some varieties of the Italian language made by Dante Alighieri, the Rufino José Cuervo Notes in the 19th century, the appearance of Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie (Magazine for Romanesque philology ) and the publication of the French linguistic atlas in the same period; These texts were preparing for the consolidation of dialectology as a branch of linguistics in the twentieth century.

Uses and applications of dialectology

It is used in specialized contexts of the linguistic branches that deal with analyzing the phonetic variations of a language in a region for a certain period of time or for several periods in a comparative way.

What is dialectology for?

It is used in specialized contexts of the linguistic branches that are responsible for analyzing the phonetic variations of a language in a region for a certain period of time or for several periods in a comparative way.

How would you apply it in the classroom?

Making puns with the different dialects of our country Setting the southern region and the Cibao region as an example. Write words in different languages ​​with the same meaning. Comparing the language of a professional person with a person from the field.

What does dialectology study?

The language corresponds to a communication system based on grammar rules and different conventions whose main function is the exchange of ideas between human communities, is based on both graphic and phonetic and is the objective of studying disciplines such as linguistics.

On the other hand, language corresponds to the innate ability of any individual to communicate, it can be structured by different linguistic cues that can range from the appearance to the complexity of a language.


Dialectology corresponds to a branch of linguistics that is responsible for, as the name implies, studying the human dialect. Consequently, it seeks to describe those phonetic and morphological variations that a language undergoes in a given region or time.

Therefore, dialectology bases its studies on finding and investigating the factors that give rise to these changes, among the main ones are:

Social factors : Corresponds to those alterations that are due to the division and stratification of social classes, systematically safeguarding language features of the social group to which the individual will be part.

Historical factors : Languages ​​are prone to change, linguistic elements constantly arise and are incorporated into a specific language, or on the contrary they become obsolete, being properly discarded in modern language.

Aesthetic factors : Characteristic of an informal mode of communication, there are aesthetic factors that directly influence the expression of certain communities, this being one of the most notable factors in modern times.

Geographical factors : Corresponds to the group of most common alterations in dialectology, it is based on all those changes that are only notable in a certain locality or region, so that its origin is related to the social and geographical interactions of certain communities, receiving also the name of geolect.

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