Dialectology is called the analysis of dialects . A dialect, meanwhile, is a linguistic variety that does not reach the category of language. Dialectology is the study of the geographic and sociolinguistic variation of the language. Due to the ambiguity and inconsistency of the terms language and dialect, in dialectology, the term linguistic variety is frequently used to designate the form of human verbal communication with reasonably homogeneous features used by a linguistic community. Dialectology would be the study of these varieties, mainly geolects, and the systematic way in which they differ from each other. Dialectology definition
It is important to mention that dialect and language (or language ), however, are somewhat fuzzy concepts of limits. A language is a verbal communication system that usually has writing and that is typical of a human group. Generally, a dialect is considered to arise from some kind of variation of a language . Dialectology, in this framework, studies the varieties of linguistic modalities that are detected in a community, comparing them. Thanks to the research work of linguistic geography and sociolinguistics, since the 19th and 20th centuries respectively, today we know that all variations can be classified into four large groups: social, geographical, stylistic, and historical.
Dialectology also focuses on the study of certain phonetic features, lexical forms, or turns that predominate in each group and that attract its members to include them in their way of speaking. For this to take place it is necessary that they feel identified with those who use them, so it does not matter that they are exposed to the traits of another group. Adolescents, for example, tend to resist the ways of speaking of their elders and, instead, tend to copy those of their peers. Dialectology definition
In a broad sense, it can be said that a dialect is a subdivision of a language. Dialectology is in charge of considering these structures, detecting commonalities and differences.
Descriptive dialectology examines modern dialects and individual dialectal differences based on the material of field recordings of live speech (made by ear in phonetic transcription or on a tape recorder). All descriptions of dialects of modern times (Russian dialects – from the middle of the 19th century to the present day) belong to the field of descriptive dialectology. Some descriptions are more or less complete grammars of dialects, others are devoted to individual subsystems of dialects (phonetics, morphology); many older works are collections of local linguistic features. Most of the works of this kind in the field of dialectology of Romance languages and descriptions of East Slavic dialects of the second half of the 20th century. executed in a purely synchronous plan;
History of dialectology
Dialectic as a science arose in connection with the emergence of a serious interest in living folk speech. In Germany at the end of the 17th century. the collection of materials of dialects of the German language began (local words were recorded, dictionaries of were compiled ). In the second half of the 19th century. along with the emergence of , the scientific study of territorial dialects developed. They began to be viewed as a product of the natural development of the language, as a natural variation of the system in different territories of the language spread. Dialectology definition
Uses and applications of dialectology
It is used in specialized contexts of the linguistic branches that deal with analyzing the phonetic variations of a language in a region for a certain period of time or for several periods in a comparative way.