Independence of United States Causes consequences Main battles

Independence of the United States

Process by which the thirteen Atlantic colonies of North America became independent from Great Britain, in 1776. In this article we will provide you the details of the Independence of United States.

Independence of the United States is called the process by which the thirteen Atlantic colonies of North America separated from the British Empire , in the second half of the 18th century .

The conflict between the British Crown and its North American colonies began in 1763, at the end of the 7 Years’ War . To finance the expenses caused by the war, the Crown adopted a set of measures that affected the interests of the thirteen colonies: it prohibited the advance of the colonists towards the lands conquered from the French (Canada and Louisiana), it implanted a commercial monopoly on tea and other products and established various taxes.

After unsuccessfully claiming for the repeal of these measures, the colonists began an independence movement, which culminated on July 4, 1776 , when the Second Continental Congress , meeting in Philadelphia, proclaimed the independence of the United States. This was not recognized by Great Britain, that sent troops to North America to recover the lost territories.

Thus began the War of Independence, during which the United States was supported by Spain and France, who sought to recover the territories lost during the 7 Years’ War.

In 1783 , Great Britain admitted its defeat and signed the Treaty of Paris , by which it recognized the independence of the United States.

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Causes and consequences of the Independence of the United States


The main causes of the Independence of the United States were the following:

  • The 7-year war (1756-1753) , in which the North American colonists participated in the fight against the French possessions in Canada and Louisiana . The colonists were disappointed by the prohibition of Great Britain that they could occupy the territories taken from the French.
  • The imposition by Great Britain of taxes on the imports of various products so that the colonists would cover the expenses caused by the war.
  • The Boston Massacre , which in 1770 ended with the murder of several settlers by British troops. The colonists who were shot demanded the elimination of the new taxes.
  • The closure of the port of Boston and the prohibition of the right of assembly decreed by the British in 1773, after some settlers, disguised as Indians, threw the cargo of tea from several ships into the sea. Those vessels belonged to the company to which the Crown granted the monopoly trade in that product.
  • The refusal of the British government to accept the argument of the colonists that it was not fair that they imposed new taxes since they did not have representatives in the London Parliament.

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Among the main consequences of the Independence of the United States, the following can be highlighted:

  • The weakening of Great Britain that, after the loss of its North American colonies, reoriented the geographical bases of its colonial Empire towards Asia, Africa and Oceania.
  • The sanction of the United States Constitution of 1787 , which established the republican, representative and federal form of government; and the creation of three independent powers: executive, legislative and judicial.
  • The consecration of elementary rights , inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment : freedom of expression, of the press and of assembly, as well as the right to petition the authorities and to possess weapons. But none of those rights applied to slaves.
  • The beginning of a process of economic development that made possible the creation of a powerful internal market and territorial expansion towards the west in search of raw materials to feed the incipient industrial development.
  • The incidence of the Independence of the United States in the unleashing of the French Revolution , due to the serious economic crisis caused in France by the military support given to the rebel colonists.
  • The influence that the United States exerted on the Spanish-American colonies, by serving as an inspiration and model for the Creoles who wanted to end Spanish domination in America.

Main battles of the Independence of the United States

Among the main battles of the American War of Independence, the following stand out:

Name Date Outcome
Battle of Trenton 1776 USA victory
Battle of Long Island 1776 British victory.
Battle of princeton 1777 USA victory
Battle of Saratoga 1777 USA victory
Battle of Monmouth 1778 Uncertain.
Battle of Lake Pontchartrain 1779 Hispanic American Victoria.
Battle of Kings Mountain 1780 USA victory
Battle of the Chesapeake Bay 1781 Franco American victory.
Battle of Yorktown 1781 USA victory

Enhance your reading: Storming of the Bastille with causes in detail

Protagonists of the Independence of the United States

Among the main protagonists of the Independence of the United States are:

  • Benjamin Franklin  (1706-1790) : American politician, diplomat and scientist. He was the first American ambassador to France.
  • George Washington  (1732-1799) : considered the father of the country, he was the commander-in-chief of the continental army. After the end of the war, he was elected the first president of the United States.
  • John Adams  (1735-1826) : American lawyer, diplomat, and political theorist. He was the second president of the United States, and later ambassador to several European countries.
  • Thomas Jefferson  (1743–1826) – American politician with great public speaking skills. He wrote the Act of Independence and was elected the third president of the United States.

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