Branches of philosophy and what they study and characteristics

Branches of philosophy

Among the main branches of philosophy , logic, political philosophy, epistemology, ethics, metaphysics and the philosophy of language stand out. Philosophy is the discipline that seeks to study problems considered essential or fundamental for human beings.

The emphasis in philosophy is on the rationality of its arguments; It is not based on elements imposed by institutions or people of authority, but on rational thoughts.

Philosophy recognizes the importance of empiricism, but its arguments generally do not come from experimentation, but from the analysis of the concepts taken into account. Through philosophy, it is possible to develop critical thinking and an ethical vision that will enable a more complete development, both individually and in a group.

History of Philosophy

It has to do with the study of the meaning of history and the way in which it is determining the development of societies. The history of philosophy considers what is known as historical consciousness.

In this branch of philosophy, the causality of situations is taken into account, as well as theories associated with human progress. Its main premise is that the process of history is a binding unit that has a great influence on the development of societies.

The most relevant branches of philosophy

Below are the main branches of philosophy

Meta philosophy

It is also known as the philosophy of philosophy. Its objective is to study the intrinsic characteristics of philosophy, the foundations on which it is based, its methods of study and the objectives it pursues.

Through meta philosophy, it is possible to question the relativity, autonomy and objectivity of the essential claims of philosophy, allowing this discipline to continue to develop on increasingly firm foundations.

philosophy of religion

Through the philosophy of religion, it is possible to study in depth the fundamental precepts of religions. Within his area of ​​study is the questioning about God and nature.

This branch of philosophy differs from religious philosophy in that the latter focuses its attention on the study of philosophies that have been inspired by religions.

applied philosophy

Through applied philosophy, a philosopher can help to analyze problems related to various areas of study in the most critical way possible.

This branch of philosophy uses tools such as argumentation, logic and the analysis of experiences; Thanks to this, he is able to delve into the root of a problem to fully understand it.


Axiology focuses its attention on the study of values ​​and their nature. A more contemporary approach to this discipline also includes an in-depth analysis of anti-values.

The intention is to analyze what makes something valuable or not, focusing the study on the most essential foundations of each value or anti-value.


Aesthetics is responsible for the study of beauty, both in the artistic sphere and outside it, through the experience of the senses. It was defined as a science that studies sensitive knowledge.

As for the scope of works of art, aesthetics studies the essential notion of works and the value judgments made about them.


This branch of philosophy studies knowledge as such. The elements it takes into account are related to the social, political, economic and psychological realities in which knowledge developed during different historical periods.

Likewise, epistemology analyzes in depth the notions of reality, truth and objectivity, among other key concepts for understanding knowledge.


Ethics focuses its study on the nature of the notions of good and evil. It also focuses on the peculiarities of morality, virtue and duty, all concepts related to human conduct.

This discipline studies the set of fundamental elements that make up morality; that is, ethics studies morality.

legal philosophy

Legal philosophy is responsible for studying the roots of the essential foundations that make up the legal structures that govern a given society. It raises questions related to justice and law enforcement.

In the study of legal philosophy, a certain period is taken into account, since it is considered that each historical moment launches a different context that conditions the application of a certain legal framework.

philosophy of education

This branch of philosophy studies educational phenomena from a philosophical point of view. In other words, it considers the most essential elements of the practice to analyze them in depth and contribute to the generation of positive changes.

The main objective of the philosophy of education is to produce concrete improvements through analysis. It is not a contemplative practice, but focused on action.

feminist philosophy

Feminist philosophy seeks to restructure the historical notion of philosophy, considering the contributions that different authors have had throughout history. This move indicates that these contributions were not included in classical philosophy.

For this reason, one of the main interests of feminist philosophy is to justify these authors, as well as to analyze and propagate their approaches to the fundamental concepts of this discipline.

sport philosophy

This discipline focuses its attention on the study of the sports phenomenon from a critical and deeply analytical point of view, considering, above all, the values ​​associated with sports practices and the identification of the being constructed from this activity.

In the study of the philosophy of sport, questions arise such as the influence of sport activity on the conception of justice that a given society has or on the morality of its citizens.

philosophy of science

The philosophy of science seeks to carry out a critical and in-depth analysis of this field of research. The idea is to consider all dimensions related to science, such as the environmental, social and economic fields, among others.

The philosophy of science takes into account the processes of knowledge production and the way it is applied. It also focuses in a special way on the different ways in which science develops and expands.


Logic is dedicated to the study of the structures of thought. He focuses his efforts on analyzing concepts and reasoning in general, with the intention of creating valid and correctly stated arguments.

Some philosophers have determined that logic allows us to consider a criterion of truth. When seeking to generate valid arguments, logic directly influences regulations related to scientific research.


Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that analyzes the foundations of reality. Its field of study encompasses the analysis of all the elements that condition and determine the reality that surrounds the human being.

Among the foundations that determine reality, being stands out, so that metaphysics focuses its efforts on understanding and deeply analyzing being as an entity that transforms reality.

political philosophy

This branch of philosophy had an important influence on the creation and application of the main political ideas that were generated throughout history.

The main objective of political philosophy is to critically and deeply analyze the nature of the political event, considering the most essential elements that make up politics as a science.

Political philosophy studies areas related to power relations, the notion of authority, political knowledge as such and the phenomena generated as a consequence of social conflicts that may arise in a given context, among other aspects.

social philosophy

Human relations and their implications are the main object of study of social philosophy. This branch of philosophy considers the human being and its material and immaterial contexts, thanks to which it can understand the dynamics that become the basis of societies.

Among the main problems studied by social philosophy, the notions of justice, equality and freedom stand out, aspects that play an essential role in human relations.

The concept of freedom is of great importance for social philosophy, since the foundations of this discipline establish that only the free man is capable of building a society.

According to social philosophy, societies are evident representations of the will of individuals and, at the same time, they are the responsibility of the entire group of people that compose it.

natural philosophy

Natural philosophy is dedicated to critically analyzing the physical environment that houses the human being and where he interacts with various elements.

The real plan is considered in its entirety, as well as in all the implications that this reality has in relation to man and his way of seeing the world in which he lives.

The concepts developed by this branch of philosophy were also known in antiquity as physics or the history of philosophy.

This discipline played a special role in the distance between philosophy and religion, since the first philosophers relied precisely on the explanation of nature and reality to contradict the theological arguments that prevailed at the time.

moral philosophy

Moral philosophy specifically studies the value systems that determine the actions of human beings. It seeks to analyze in depth the implications of what is considered good and bad, as well as the nature of these assessments.

This discipline considers that freedom is one of the fundamental characteristics of the human being, because only in freedom is it possible to discern between good and evil.

Moral philosophy seeks to promote a space for reflection that makes it possible to know the intrinsic responsibility of human beings in relation to the moral decisions to which they are committed.

philosophy of language

The philosophy of language focuses its attention on the reflections that arise when analyzing the relationships that exist between systems of language, thought and reality.

The critical analysis of language is of great importance for all branches of philosophy, because only through a deep understanding of all dimensions of language is it possible to build fundamental concepts and notions that can be expressed through it.

Like the other branches of philosophy, the philosophy of language bases its actions on critical, conceptual and logical analyses, not on empirical actions.

Through the philosophy of language it is also possible to analyze the relationships between expressions that seek to describe thoughts and reality. The intention is to build a common notion that allows the linguistic system to help reflect on how human beings interact with their context.

philosophy of mind

In the philosophy of mind, the main object of study is precisely the mind. Among the elements analyzed, feelings, dreams, perceptions, sensations, beliefs and, in general, thoughts stand out.

This branch of philosophy gives special importance to the intentionality of thought. It also considers the reasons why such or such mental stimuli develop and the implications these stimuli have on the actions and behaviors of human beings.

We hope that you have read about the branches of Philosophy.

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