English Linguistics Terms
Before understanding the true essence of linguistics, one must have a complete understanding of English English Linguistics Terms.
absolute -ta. 1. absolute clause or construction. That in which they join directly, without the presence of a personal verb, a subject and a predicative element, usually a participle, but also a gerund, an adjective and even an adverb or a prepositional group, and that amounts to an adverbial subordinate prayer, almost always of temporal significance. Absolute clauses or constructions are the sequences that are highlighted in the following examples: after the match , the players retired to the locker room; being there , he will not dare to try; all set , we set out to march; already in Madrid, the Kings greeted the public gathered there . As you can see, they maintain some independence from the rest of the statement, from which they are separated by pauses (commas in writing). 2. Absolute participle. Past participle (→ participle) that appears in an absolute clause or construction (→ 1): read the speech, the president stepped off the stand; That said, the meeting was terminated. 3. absolute superlative. → superlative. 4. Absolute use of a verb. A transitive verb is used as absolute when its direct complement does not appear expressly in the statement, because it is known or because it does not want to restrict its meaning. So, shoot, write and hear are transitive verbs used as absolutes in I shot against the wall; Every week I write to my parents; I hear badly from the left ear. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
accent. 1. Accent (ortho) graphic. Sign with which, according to certain rules, the prosodic accent (→ 2) is represented in the writing. It is also called tilde. 2. Prosodic accent. Greater relief or intensity with which a syllable is pronounced within a word. It is also called accent intensity, tonic or phonetic.
meaning. Each of the different meanings of a word or a phrase.
active -va. 1. The sentences or constructions whose subject designates the entity that plays the most active role in the action, process or situation expressed by the verb are active or active. In the clearest case, in the active sentences the subject designates the agent of the action (→ agent), as in the director ordered the withdrawal of the project; Juan danced until dawn; The insecticides ended the plague. But when the verb does not denote actions, but other types of notions, as in I am hungry or Maria does not deserve the prize, the subject cannot be defined exactly as an agent of the action, so, in a broad sense, all sentences that are not passive (→ passive) or do not belong to the so-called «middle voice» (→ voice) are considered active , 2). 2. active participle. → participle, 3.
accusative. In Latin and other languages, in the case of the decline in which the direct complement is expressed, that is, in those languages they adopt some linguistic elements, such as name or pronoun, to perform this function. In Spanish, this denomination refers, generally, to the unstressed personal pronouns of the third person (s), which (s), which come from Latin forms of accusative. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
adjective. 1. Word whose own function is to modify the noun – with which it agrees in gender and number -, either directly: small house ; magnificent views; that plane; either through a verb, in which case the adjective functions as an attribute (→ attribute) or as a predicative (→ predicative): The house is small ; The children eat quietly . Adjectives are divided into two large classes:
- a) qualifying adjectives. They are those that express qualities, properties, states or characteristics of the entities to which they modify, such as soft, brave, nervous, conductive, magnetic,or other notions, such as relationship or belonging, origin, etc..: maternal, police, chemical, Aristocrat, American, next, presumed. Those who express relationship or belonging, as maternal, policeor chemical, are called, more specifically, relational adjectives; and those that express nationality or origin, such as American or Cordovan, are called adjectives gentilicios (→ gentilicio).
- b) determinative adjectives. They are those whose basic function is to introduce the noun in the sentence and delimit its scope, expressing to which or how many of the entities designated by the name refers the speaker: this car, some friends, three days.
adverb. 1. An invariable word whose own function is to complement a verb (I spoke slowly ), an adjective ( less interesting ) or another adverb ( quite far, near here ); It can also affect nominal groups ( only Thursdays ), prepositional ( even without your help ) or a whole sentence ( unfortunately , could not arrive on time ). They provide very different meanings: place ( here, near, where ), time ( today, then, just, when ), mode ( well, well, politely, how), denial ( no, neither ), affirmation ( yes, indeed ), doubt ( maybe, possibly ), desire ( hopefully ), quantity or degree ( much, almost, more, how much ), inclusion or exclusion ( even, even, exclusive) , except, except, less ), opposition ( however, however ) or order ( first ), among other notions. 2. comparative adverb. → comparative. 3. exclamatory adverb. → exclamatory. 4. interrogative adverb. → interrogative. 5. relative adverb. → relative.
adversative -va. 1. Which denotes or implies contrast or opposition of meaning. 2. adversative conjunction. → conjunction, 2. 3. adversative prayer. → prayer, 5.
africado -da. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced in two moments that follow one another quickly: at first there is closure of the articulatory organs (occlusion), but these open immediately after, leaving a narrow channel through which the air passes rubbing (frication). In Spanish the sound of ch is African.
agent. 1. Entity (person, animal or thing) that performs the action denoted by the verb, or by the noun, if it implies a verbal action. Agent is the concierge in the concierge closed the office and in the office was closed by the concierge; also, in the destruction by the concierge of the office papers. It opposes patient (→ patient). 2. complement agent. → complement, 2. 3. agent subject. → subject, 2.
grammatical It is said of the constructions that violate some grammatical principle of the system, as * My mother cooks as well as you (instead of as you). As seen in the example, agramaticality is signaled by putting an asterisk before the agramatical sentence or construction. Do not confuse agramaticality with incorrectness, because the incorrect qualifier applies to the witnessed sequences that should be avoided in cult use – and which in this dictionary are indicated by putting the symbol first -, as you work hard (instead of the right one you work hard ).
sharp -da. It is said of the word that carries the prosodic accent (→ accent, 2) in the last syllable, such as truck or paper.
alveolar. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced supporting the tongue in the upper alveoli (the cavities in which the teeth of the upper jaw are set), like that of the letters l or n.
anaphora. Relationship that establishes a word (usually a pronoun) with another or others that appeared previously in the speech and that allow to determine what is its reference. Thus, there is anaphora between the pronoun yes and Maria in Mary keeps everything for herself. They are anaphoric elements or have anaphoric value that establish this type of relationship.
anaphoric -ca. → anaphora.
analogy. Creation of new linguistic forms, or modification of existing ones, similar to others. Thus, by analogy with library the new discotheque, film library or video library voices are created;or irregular verb form becomes fitted in the wrong Cupio, by analogy with the characteristics of the second conjugation regular shapes, as ate, feared, etc.
amphibology. Double meaning of a word or expression in a given context. Thus, there is amphibology in Sancho’s donkey, as it can mean both that the donkey (‘animal’) belongs to Sancho and that Sancho is an ass (‘ignorant person’).
anglicate -da. It is said of the word, expression, meaning or other idiomatic feature in which there is an influence of the English language.
Anglicism. Word, expression or idiomatic feature of the English language that penetrate another language.
antecedent. Name, nominal group or sentence that precedes mediately or immediately to a relative or another pronoun and determine what the referent of these is. Thus, woman is a precedent of the relative that in the woman who came yesterday left a message for you, and the prayer that you come is the antecedent of the pronoun that in That you come, that I desire. It opposes consistent (→ consistent).
antietimological Contrary to etymology (→ etymological).
antonym. Word of opposite or opposite meaning to another. Thus, good is antonym of bad; to grow is to decrease; Nice is unpleasant.
antonomasia. 1. Rhetorical figure that consists of using a common name (→ name, 5) with its own name value (→ name, 10), or vice versa, such as the Savior (through Jesus Christ) or a donjuan (for a conqueror).2. The term “par excellence” indicates that a person or thing is entitled to the common name by which it is designated, since it is, among all of its kind, the most important, known or characteristic. Thus, the Sage by antonomasia is Alfonso X or the Network by par excellence is the Internet.
anthroponym Person’s own name (→ name, 10).
apicoalveolar. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced supporting the tip or apex of the tongue in the upper alveoli (→ alveolar), such as that of the letters l, r o, in large areas of Spain, also s.
apocopated -da. Presenting apocope (→ apocope).
apodosis. In a conditional statement, part that expresses the conditioned and constitutes the main sentence: If you cannot come, we will suspend the trip. It opposes prostate (→ prostate). It also applies to concession statements (→ concessional, 1): Even if you try hard, you will not be able to finish it on time.
apposition. Construction in which a noun or a nominal group directly complements, without express link, another noun or nominal group. The apposition can be specific (→ specific), as in Your friend the fruit bowl has come to see you; or explanatory (→ explanatory), as in Maria, Juan’s sister, called yesterday. By extension, appositions are considered cases in which a noun carries as a complement another noun introduced by the preposition of and between them there is an identity relationship: the city of Madrid, the month of January.
apostrophe. → apostrophe, in the body of the dictionary.
Arabism. Word, expression or idiomatic feature of the Arabic language that penetrate another language.
archaism. Linguistic element whose form or meaning, or both at the same time, have fallen into disuse in a language. So, are archaisms in Spanish words today entuerto (for tort) or do (from where), or the use of having the sense of ‘having or possessing’.
Article. Class of words that precedes the noun and indicates whether what is designated by it is known or not known by the interlocutors, also indicating their gender and number: the tree, some women, what worries me. There are two kinds of article:
- a) definiteor determined article. It is unstressed and indicates that the entity to which the noun refers is known or known, that is, identifiable by the recipient of the message. Its forms are the, the, the, the, the.
- b) indefiniteor indeterminate article. It is tonic and indicates that the entity to which the noun refers is not known or known and, therefore, not necessarily identifiable by the recipient of the message. Their forms are one, one, ones, ones.
aspiration. Action or effect phonate by a deaf exhalation produces a rush of air in the larynx or pharynx, as corresponding to the letter h in some words from other languages, such as hamster or hashish, or j or the s in some dialect variants of Spanish, in which it is pronounced [muhér] by woman or [íhla] by island.
sucked -da. It is said of the sound that is pronounced with aspiration (→ aspiration).
unstressed It is said of the vowel, the syllable or the word that are pronounced without a prosodic accent (→ accent, 2).
attribute. Syntactic function that plays the word or group of words (usually an adjective or a noun, preceded or not by preposition) that, through a copulative verb (→ verb, 4), attributes a quality or state to the entity designated by the subject: Pedro is a painter ; The book is dirty ; I am from Madrid ; That boy seems shy .
assistant. → verb, 2.
bilabial. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by approaching or joining the lips, like that of the letters b or m.
cacophony. Unpleasant effect that produces a repetition or combination of sounds.
tracing. 1. Adoption of the meaning of a foreign word or expression using existing words in the language of reception. The tracing can give rise to a new expression, by translation of the components of the foreign voice, such as in basketball (tracing of English basketball ) or in coup d’etat (tracing of French coup d’État ); or it can incorporate into an existing word a meaning that it did not have and that does have its equivalent in another language, what is called semantic tracing (→ 2). 2. semantic tracing. Incorporation into a word of a meaning that corresponds to its equivalent in another language. So, mouse, in its sense of ‘device with which the cursor of a computer moves’, it is a semantic tracing of English mouse, in the same way that condition, with the sense of ‘disorder or disease‘, is a tracing, in this case objectionable, from English condition.
cardinal. → cardinal, in the body of the dictionary.
case. Each of the forms that, in languages that have declension (→ declination), adopt certain kinds of words, such as name or pronoun, according to the syntactic function they must perform.
catalanism Language, expression or language characteristic of the Catalan language that penetrate another language.
grammatical category Each of the classes of words established according to their grammatical properties. The fundamental categories are the article, the noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the verb, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction and the interjection.
causal. 1. Which denotes or expresses cause. 2. causal conjunction. → conjunction, 3. 3. causal prayer. → prayer, 6.
causative -va. It is said of a verb that makes sense or causative value when the entity designated by the subject does not perform the action referred to by itself, but rather orders it or instructs others: The dictator shot thousands of opponents; I have cut my hair in a new hair salon . It also applies to intransitive verbs that have transitive variants, such as in Herví milk for ten minutes (transitive and causative), versus Boiled milk for ten minutes (intransitive). Causative verbs admit paraphrase with ” make + infinitive” or ” make + verb in subjunctive”: I boiled the milk for ten minutes; The dictator had thousands of opponents shot.
lisp. → ceceo, in the body of the dictionary.
central. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by placing the tongue in the center of the palate, like that of the consonant and in general Spanish.
circumstantial. → complement, 3.
comparative -va. That expresses comparison. It applies to certain adjectives and certain adverbs (→ grade, 3), some conjunctions (→ conjunction, 4) and a type of sentences or constructions (→ sentence, 7).
complement. 1. Word or group of words that depends syntactically on another element of the sentence. 2. complement agent. The one who in a passive sentence (→ passive, 1) appears headed by the preposition by and indicates the person, animal or thing that performs the action denoted by the verb (→ agent): The city was destroyed by the Romans. You can also complement a noun, if it implies a verbal action: The text describes the destruction of the city by the Romans. 3. circumstantial complement. Complement of the verb not required by the meaning of this and expressing the circumstances of place, time, mode, instrument, medium, cause, purpose, quantity, etc., related to verbal action: Work in a bank ; Dawn at five ; It was raining heavily ; I dug the ditch with a shovel ; I’ll call you on the phone ; Vacation savings . 4. regime supplement. Complement always headed by a preposition and demanded by the verb, so that, if suppressed, the sentence is anomalous or acquires another meaning: Victory depends on the players; He insisted in doing so; I settle for this. They can also take supplements regime some nouns and adjectives: His resignation in charge surprised everyone; It is prone to colds. 5. direct complement. The one that is required by the verb and completes its significance by designating the entity that directly affects the verbal action. It is built without preposition or, in certain circumstances, with the preposition to (→ to 2, in the body of the dictionary): The editor has not yet read your latest novel; Buy those; I don’t think it comes; I’m waiting my parents. It can be replaced, and sometimes coparcener, with (→ accusative) pronouns unstressed accusative third person to adopt forms what (s), the (s): the I read; Buy yourself the; I do not think so; My parents all I’m waiting. In the passive (→ passive) version of the sentence, when this is possible, the direct complement plays the role of subject: your last novel has not yet been read by the editor. 6. Indirect complement. Complement of the verb that, if it is a name or a nominal group, is always preceded by the preposition to and it can be substituted or co-appear with the unstressed pronouns of dative (→ dative), which in third person adopt the forms le, les (or se, if the dative pronoun precedes another of accusative): ( give ) the package to your brother ; I gave him the package; it gave it . According to the meaning of the verb it complements, you can designate the addressee of the action: I talked about you to my boss ; who is benefited or harmed by it: I have cleaned your house or my brother’s bicycle has been broken; to the one who experiences the notion that the verb denotes: it is difficult for him to apologize; or the person or positively or negatively by the characteristics of something else affected: The pants you are great . 7. partitive complement. → partitive. 8. predicative complement. → predicative.
concordance, agree. → concordance, in the body of the dictionary.
concession -va. 1. It applies to sentences or constructions that express an objection or an obstacle to verify the action denoted by the main verb, without such an obstacle preventing it from being fulfilled: although at the most , I do not gain weight; Despite your opposition , I will go to the party . The value or sense of concession is typical of this type of sentences. 2. concession conjunction. → conjunction, 6.
sentence connector. Word or group of words whose function is to link sentences or sentences, linking them with some expository or argumentative purpose, and showing between them various semantic relations, such as contrast, cause, consequence, addition, opposition, equivalence, order, etc. They are sentence connectors however, indeed, indeed, though, so, therefore, first, secondly, now, in that case, despite that, on the contrary, etc.
conjugation. Set of all forms of a verb, corresponding to the different modes, times, numbers and people. Also, each of the groups to which a verb belongs according to the termination of its infinitive and which determines the way in which it is conjugated; thus, the verbs ending in -ar are from the first conjugation, those ending in -er are from the second and those ending in -ir are from the third.
conjunction. 1. An invariable word that introduces various types of subordinate sentences (subordinate conjunction) or that unites syntactically equivalent words or sequences (coordinating conjunction). 2. adversative conjunction. The one that unites words or sentences whose senses are partially or totally opposed. They are but, more and fate. 3. causal conjunction. The one that introduces causal subordinate sentences (→ sentence, 6). The most representative are because and then. 4. comparative conjunction. The one that introduces the second term of comparison in the constructions or comparative sentences (→ sentence, 7). Are that and how. 5. completive conjunction. The one that introduces substantive subordinate sentences (→ sentence, 35). They are that (sometimes, also like) and, in some kind of indirect interrogative sentences, yes. 6. concessional conjunction. The one that introduces concessional subordinate sentences (→ concessional, 1). The most representative is though. 7. conditional conjunction. The one that introduces conditional subordinate sentences (→ sentence, 10). The most representative is yes. 8. consecutive conjunction. to)The one that joins sentences or statements between which a relationship of cause-deduction or cause-consequence is established, such as so, then or the phrase so, also called ilative conjunctions: I think, then I exist; I have a lot of work, so this year I’m not going on vacation. b) In the so-called consecutive intensive constructions, the one introduced by the subordinate that expresses the consequence or effect of what is denoted in the principal through the intensifiers, tacit or express, as (to) or such (or the determinants one or each ):He put so much salt in the salad that there was no one to eat it; Sing that gives pleasure; It’s cold that peels; Every nonsense says that it is impossible to heed . 9. coordinating conjunction. → 1. 10. copulative conjunction. The one that unites words, sentences and other syntactic groups establishing relationships of addition or aggregation. They are and, e, ni. 11. Distributive conjunction. The one that is put before the different members of a distributive coordination, which is the one in which there is a succession of alternatives or conflicting situations. These sequences are generally constructed with adverbs used correlatively with the value of conjunctions, which are put before the different terms that appear as options: well …, well …; ya …, ya …; pray …, pray … 12. disjunctive conjunction. The one that expresses the tenderness or choice between words or sentences. They are o, u. 13. final conjunction. The one that introduces final subordinate sentences (→ sentence, 25). The most representative are the phrases for what and for what .14. Illative conjunction. → 8a. 15. subordinate conjunction. → 1.
consequent. Name, nominal group or sentence that has been anticipated in the speech by a pronoun. Thus, in Although she does not know it, Maria will soon receive great news, the noun María is the consequent of her personal pronoun; and in Didn’t you want that to take you on vacation? The prayer that will take you on vacation is the result of the demonstrative pronoun that. It opposes antecedent (→ antecedent).
consecutive -va. 1. That expresses consequence. 2. consecutive conjunction. → conjunction, 8. 3. consecutive sentence. → prayer, 11.
consonant. Letter corresponding to a consonant sound (→ consonant).
consonantal. It is said of the sound in whose pronunciation the exhaled air finds some obstacle (closing or narrowing) in its exit to the outside.
contraction. 1. Process by which two words are merged into one; and also called the resulting shape as the (one of the +) or the (of a + a). 2. The process by which a word becomes abbreviation eliminating central letters and retaining the most representative: apdo. (section).
coordination. Union of syntactically equivalent words, groups or sentences by means of a coordinating conjunction (→ conjunction, 1).
coordinated -da. 1. It is said of the element that joins another by coordination (→ coordination). 2. coordinated prayer. → prayer, 12.
correction Relationship that is established between two or more coincident linguistic elements in a statement when they have the same referent, that is, when they refer to the same entity. Thus, there is a correlation between him and your father in prayer. I told your father to come; or between the pronoun me and the elliptical subject I in the sentence I made a coffee.
quantifier Word or group of words used to quantify, that is, to indicate quantity or degree, either precisely (one, two, three, etc.), or inaccurately (much, very, little, too much, several, infinity of, lots of, etc.).
quantitative -va. That expresses quantity.
dative. 1. In Latin and other languages, in the case of the decline in which the indirect complement is expressed, that is, in such languages they adopt some linguistic elements, such as name or pronoun, to perform that function. In Spanish it is generally applied to the unstressed personal pronoun of third person le (s), which comes from a Latin form of dative. 2. The case corresponding to certain uses of atonal personal pronouns me, te, le (s) or se, nos, os, is also called dative when they are not required by the meaning of the verb, as in The girl is married (it would be equally possible and correct the prayer Marry the girl). If the dative pronoun agrees with the subject of prayer in these buildings, we often speak of agreed dative Juan is one ate cake; I do not I think anything.
decline. Set of the different forms that in certain languages, for example Latin, adopt certain kinds of words, such as the name or pronoun, according to the syntactic function that they must play in the sentence.
defective. → verb, 7.
demonstrative. Adjective or pronoun that serves to indicate or show the person, animal or thing designated by the nominal element that accompanies or replaces. Its forms are this, that and that, with its variants of gender and number: that cake is better than this; I don’t like that.
dental. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced supporting the tongue on the inner face of the upper teeth, such as that of the letters t and d.
desiderative -va. That expresses desire.
ending. Final segment that is added to the root of a word to indicate gender and number, in names, adjectives and some pronouns; and, in verbs, the person, the number, the time and the mode.
determinant. Word whose function is to introduce the name in the sentence and specify its significant extension, indicating to which or how many of the entities designated by the name refers the speaker, or whether these are known or not known or recognized by the interlocutors. The article (→ article) and the adjectives” href=”https://englopedia.com/determinative-adjectives-types-with-examples-and-detail/” target=”_blank” rel=”noopener noreferrer” data-wpil-keyword-link=”linked”>determinative adjectives (→ adjective, 1b) are decisive.
diacritic -ca. That has a distinctive function or serves to distinguish. Thus, the tilde that distinguishes between him (pronoun) and the (article), or the capital letter that differentiates Church (‘institution’) from church (‘building’) is diacritical.
dieresis → diéresis, in the body of the dictionary.
digraph. Sign formed by two letters that represent a single sound, such as ch or ll in Spanish.
diphthong. → diphthong , in the body of the dictionary.
distributive -va. 1. That expresses idea of distribution. The adjectives each and two are distributive in Spanish: Each sheep with its partner; The members of the department will present two reports [= each his own]. 2. Distributive conjunction. → conjunction, 11.
disjunctive -va. 1. Which establishes or expresses an alternative between two or more things. 2. disjunctive conjunction. → conjunction, 12.
durative -va. That expresses duration.
compositional element Component with lexical meaning, usually of Greek or Latin origin, that intervenes in the formation of compound words, putting itself before or postponing to another compositional element or to a Spanish base word. If it goes before it, it is called the compositional element prefix: bio diversity, eco system; if it is postponed, it is called suffix compositional element: it anthropophilic phage, neur algias.
elidido -da. → elid.
elide. 1. Suppress one or more sounds of a word and, in particular, the final vowel when the word precedes or joins another that begins with a vowel, as in d’este (de + este) or in eighteenth (tenth + eighth). To designate the action or effect of eliding in this sense, the noun elision is used. 2. Omit some element of the statement without compromising or impeding the understanding of the message, as in We like cinema; Pedro, music (for Pedro [likes] music). To refer to the action or effect of eliding in this sense, the elliptic and elision nouns, both valid, are used.
Ellipsis, elision. → elid.
enunciated Word or sequence of words, delimited by very marked pauses, which constitutes a communicative unit of complete meaning. A statement can be formed by a single word: Silence! a group of words: A cigarette? one sentence: It’s very hot here; or a set of sentences: He has apologized, but I don’t know if I will be able to forgive him.
esdrújulo -la. It is said of the word that carries the prosodic accent (→ accent, 2) in the last to last syllable, like bird or whole.
specific -va. What specifies. It applies to adjectives, appositions, complements or sentences that delimit the reference of the name specifying some quality or circumstance of the entity to which it refers: I have bought a laptop ; My friend the fruit bowl is very nice; I am looking for people of good character ; Only students who have approved go on a trip . It is opposed to explanatory (→ explanatory).
style. 1. Form adopted by the statement depending on how to reproduce what someone says. The style, from this point of view, can be direct or indirect. 2. direct style. The one in which the narrator textually reproduces the words of another person: The boy said: ” I will return tomorrow.” 3. indirect style. The one in which the narrator transmits what was said by another person without reproducing it verbatim, forcing certain linguistic changes to be made in the original statement: The boy said he would return the next day.
ethical Word from which another comes historically.
etymology. Origin of a word.
etymological -ca. Based on the etymology (→ etymology) or according to it.
exclamatory -va. Own exclamation or used to exclaim. It applies to sentences that reveal the emotion or feeling of the speaker (surprise, admiration, joy, pain, regret, anger) to what the statement expresses, as well as the adjectives, pronouns or adverbs used in this type of sentences : what night so cold !; Who had known !; How to dance!
exhortative -va. It applies to the sentences or statements that serve to exhort (‘ask someone to do or stop doing something’): Be still; Do not go. The exhortative subjunctive is the employee with this intention: That you shut up! Do not leave.
expletive -va. It is applied to the word or element that is not essential either for the correct construction or for the understanding of the statement, but which provides greater expressiveness or makes the sentence more harmonious. In Spanish expletives are highlighted in the following examples elements: Just if you are tired; You better sing than not dance. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
explanatory -va. That explains. It applies to adjectives, appositions, complements or sentences that simply express qualities or circumstances of the entity to which the noun refers, without its suppression preventing the correct understanding of the statement or modifying its meaning: The police, very brave , is faced the robbers; Madrid, the capital of Spain , is a heavily wooded city; In this house, which I bought at a great price , I spend most of the summer. Opposes specific (→ specific).
final. 1. Which denotes or expresses purpose or intention. 2. final conjunction. → conjunction, 13. 3. final sentence. → prayer, 25.
flexion. Variation experienced by words through disincentives (→ disinfection) that express grammatical content, such as male or female gender ( gender flexion ) and singular or plural number ( number flexion ) in nouns; or the person, the number, the time, the mode and the aspect in the verbs ( verbal flexion ).
fractional. → Fractional, in the body of the dictionary.
fricative -va. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by letting the air out through a narrow channel left by the articulatory organs, causing friction or friction, such as that of the letters f or j.
Gallicism. Word, expression or language feature of the French language that penetrate another language.
gender. Inherent feature of the nouns by which they are divided, in Spanish, into masculine and feminine. They also adopt gender, through concordance, the determinants and adjectives that accompany them or the pronouns that replace them. The article and some pronouns also have gender neutral (→ neutral), such as the forms this, that, that, that.
demonym. Adjective (often used as a noun) that expresses nationality or place of origin, such as African, Aztec, Croatian, French or Bagdadí.
gerund. Invariable form of the verb that ends in -and in the verbs of the first conjugation (loving, jumping) and in -iendo (or -iendo) in those of the second and third (eating, reading, living).It expresses the verbal action in its development, without indication of time, number or person, and is generally assimilated to the adverb in its grammatical functioning. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
grade. 1. Form with which the intensity of the property denoted by the qualifying adjectives and some adverbs is expressed grammatically. 2. positive grade. The property denoted by the adjective or adverb appears without intensifying: tall, sincere, close. 3. comparative degree. The property denoted by the adjective or adverb is given a comparatively greater intensity, less than or equal to another property or with the same property in a different entity or circumstance. This degree is expressed using the comparative quantifiers more, less, as or equal to higher, less sincere, so close, just as far away. Some adjectives and adverbs have their own comparative forms, such as better (comparative of good and good), worse (comparative of bad and bad), greater (comparative of large) or less (comparative of small). 4. superlative grade. The property denoted by the adjective or the adverb presents the maximum intensity, either absolutely (superlative absolute): very high, very poor; either in relation to the one presented by the rest of the members of a group or group (relative superlative):the highest of my brothers, the least sincere of all, the best of his novels . A few adjectives and adverbs are in themselves absolute superlatives, because they were already in Latin: optimal, maximum, minimum, lousy, optimally, lousy. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
haplology Deletion of a syllable similar to another contiguous one of the same words, such as around (around) or competitiveness (of competitiveness).
heteronomy Phenomenon by which members of different sexes of a couple of beings are designated by words of different roots: male / female, horse / mare.
heteronym Each of the words that constitute a heteronomy (→ heteronomy).
hiatus. → hiatus, in the body of the dictionary. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
hypocoristic It is said the abbreviated name or deformed emotional intent (as mom, for mom) and, especially, the names of modified cell used in familiar speech as Pepe (by Joseph) or Merche (for Mercedes).
homophony Homophone condition (→ homophone).
impersonal. It is said of the sentences or constructions that lack subject (→ subject): It is cold; There were several witnesses in the room; It was snowing heavily. It also applies to some of those who have it tacit or in which it receives generic interpretation, as in Live well here or Knock on the door. It is also said of verbs (→ verb) and verbal periphrasis (→ periphrasis, 2) that cannot be subject, such as snowing, having or having to + infinitive.
incoative -va. It is said of the verbs (→ verb) or verbal periphrasis (→ periphrasis, 2) that express the beginning of a state, a process or an action, such as dawn, getting sick, becoming + infinitive or breaking + infinitive. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
undefined. 1. adjective or indefinite pronoun. The one that expresses notions of quantity, identity or of another type in a vague or indeterminate way, like some, several, someone, nobody, another, any, etc. 2. indefinite article. → article, b.
infinitive. Invariable form of the verb that ends in -ar in the verbs of the first conjugation (love), in -er in those of the second (eat) and in -ir in those of the third (live).It does not indicate time, number or person, and is often assimilated to the noun in its grammatical functioning.
interdental. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by letting the tip of the tongue hover between the upper and lower teeth, such as that of the letter z in non-sese speakers (→ seseo, in the body of the dictionary). English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
interfix. Linguistic element, usually without meaning, which is sandwiched between the root word (→ root) and a suffix (→ suffix): DUST ar eda, flower ec illa, cheesy l ísimo.
interjection. Word invariable, with syntactic autonomy, with which the speaker expresses feelings or sensations, or induces the interlocutor to action. In the writing it usually appears between exclamation marks: alas! oh! oh! dear! ea! come on! The formulas of greeting and farewell are also interjections: hello, goodbye! English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
interjective -va. That has an interjection value (→ interjection).
interrogative -va. Own question or used to ask. It applies to sentences expressing question directly or indirectly, and adjectives, pronouns and adverbs used in this type of sentences: ¿ What time is it? How many books are there ?; What do they do ?; I asked how it was called.
intransitive. → verb, 10. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
Italianism Word, expression or language feature of the Italian language that penetrate another language. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
labiodental It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by slightly supporting the upper teeth on the lower lip, like that of the letter f.
side. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by letting the air out from the sides of the oral cavity, and not from the center, such as that of the letter l or that of the digraph ll in non-Yeist speakers (→ Yeism , in the body of the dictionary ).
Latinism Latin word that is used in another language without losing its original form: ratio, quorum, surplus. In Spanish they undergo the rules of graphic accentuation.
lexicalized -da. → lexicalize.
lexicalize Said of a free syntactic construction or combination, becoming part of the lexical system of a language, becoming a more or less fixed expression with its own meaning. Thus, the expression in my life is lexicalized with the sense of ‘never’: I will not do it again in my life; and so, they are sentences or constructions like We are not one! Needless to say or to haphazardly .
locution. 1. Stable group of two or more words that works as a lexical unit with its own meaning, not derived from the sum of meanings of its components. Several types are distinguished according to their grammatical functioning: 2. adjective phrase. The one that works like an adjective: a woman of flag, a truth like a temple. 3. adverbial phrase. The one that works like an adverb: Everything went great; It appeared suddenly. 4. conjunctive speech. The one that works as a conjunction: so, for more than. 5. determinative speech. Which works as a determinative adjective (→ adjective, 1b): the occasional cigarette. 6. interjective speech. Which is equivalent to an interjection: holy heaven! My God! No way! 7. nominal speech. Which is equivalent to a noun and works as such: gypsy arm (‘cylindrical cake‘), porthole (‘circular window’). 8. prepositional speech. The one that works as a preposition: about, with a view to, next to, despite. 9. pronominal speech. Which is equivalent to a pronoun and works as such: the occasional, each. 10. verbal speech. Which is equivalent to a verb and works as such: to miss, to realize, to pay attention.
metathesis. Change of place of a sound within a word: cocreta (for croquette) or axphysia (for asphyxiation). English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
monoptonation Reduction of the two vowels of a diphthong to a single vowel: thirty (for thirty) or Ulogio (for Eulogio).
morpheme. Minimum unit that can be analyzed with meaning, be it lexical or grammatical. The prefixes (→ prefix) and suffixes (→ suffix), the endings (→ disinfection) and the roots (→ root) of the words are morphemes. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
morphological -ca. Of morphology (→ morpho logy).
nasal. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by letting the air out through the nose, like that of the letters n, m and ñ.
neutral -tra. Gender that is neither male nor female. Nouns cannot have a gender-neutral Spanish in Spanish, unlike what happens in other languages, such as Latin or German. In Spanish, only the demonstratives (this, that, that), the quantifiers (both, how much, how much, much, little), the definite or determined article (lo) and the third-person personal pronouns (it, it) have neutral forms. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
Name. 1. Word with inherent gender that designates people, animals or things and is able to function as the core of the subject (→ subject). Equivalent to noun (→ noun). 2. abstract name. He who does not designate a material reality, such as attitude, beauty, movement. 3. Appellative name. Same as common name (→ 5). 4. collective name. The one in the singular designates a homogeneous set of people, animals or things, such as crowd, flock, cutlery. 5. common name. By opposition to its own name (→ 10), the one that has meaning and designates any one of the people, animals or things of the same class, such as fireman, fish, idea. 6. specific name. The one that designates beings or objects that have real, physical or material existence, such as doctor, horse, vessel. 7. accounting name. The one that designates entities that can be counted, such as baby, bird, day. 8. name of action. The one who designates an action. Usually refers to nouns derived from verbs, such as destruction (to destroy) or warming (of warm up) 9. uncountable or uncountable name. The one that designates substances, materials and other notions that cannot be counted, such as air, snow, sincerity. 10. proper name. The one that has no meaning and serves to name people, animals or things as individual beings: Marta, Granada, Orinoco. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
numeral. Word that expresses numerical quantity or refers to numbers, such as three, first, double, twelfth (→ numerals, in the body of the dictionary).
number. Variation experienced by nouns and words that agree with them to express, through certain endings, whether they refer to a single entity or more than one.
occlusive -va. It is said of the consonant sound in whose pronunciation the articulatory organs close completely at first, preventing the exit of the air to the outside, to open afterwards completely letting the air out abruptly, like that of the letters p, t or k. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
onomatopoeia. Word that mimics or recreates a natural sound, such as crac, meow, ticking. There are also visual onomatopoeias such as tic (nervous) or zigzag.
sentence. 1. Syntactic structure consisting of a subject (→ subject) and a predicate (→ predicate).
2. active prayer. The one that has no form or passive value (→ passive, 1).
3. adjective prayer. The subordinate that functions as an adjective and, therefore, modifies a noun. It is always introduced by a relative (→ relative) and can be explanatory (→ explanatory) or specific (→ specific): My friend, who was aware of everything, said nothing; The city where my parents live is on the coast.
4. adverbial prayer. The subordinate who works like an adverb (→ adverb): I have to talk to her before he leaves.
5. Adversary prayer. Which, headed by the adversative conjunctions but, more or more (than), expresses a sense partially or totally opposite to that implied in the preceding sentence: The team won, but did not play well ; or replaces what was denied in the previous sentence: Pepe does not study, but works as a waiter . 6. causal prayer. The subordinate who expresses the cause of the statement in the main sentence: The ground is wet because it has rained ;
or the basis or reason that induces the speaker to express the statement in the main one: It has rained, because the ground is wet .
7. comparative prayer. That which establishes a comparison between two terms: Your merits are greater than mine; I dance better than singing; Juan is blond like his father.
8. compound prayer. The one that consists of two or more predicates with their respective verbs: I went to the movies with my friends and we had a lot of fun; If it rains, we will not go to the field.
9. Concessional prayer. → concessional. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
10. conditional prayer. The subordinate who expresses the condition that must be met in order to verify what is stated in the main sentence: If you need me, call me.
11. consecutive sentence. The one that expresses the consequence of what was stated in the preceding sentence: Last night I slept badly, so I am very tired; He was so tired that he lay down dressed.
12. coordinated prayer. The one that joins another sentence through a conjunction, without any dependency relationship between them: My computer has been blocked (first coordinated) and I cannot work (second coordinated);I would like you to be attentive (first coordinated) or, at least, not to make noise (second coordinated).
13. copulative prayer. The one that contains a copulative verb (→ verb, 4): The results are excellent; The room was deserted.
14. infinitive prayer. The subordinate whose verb is infinitive: I would love to see you soon.
15. dependent prayer. The one that depends syntactically on another, called principal (→ 32): They told me that you were going on vacation; We are happy because we have approved the project.
16. relative prayer. → relative.
17. desiderative prayer. Which expresses a desire of the speaker (→ desiderative): Hopefully help arrives on time.
18. emphatic relative prayer. → relative.
19. enunciative sentence. The one that states a fact, affirming or denying it: I have been given a book; The bell did not ring.
20. specific sentence. → 3.
21. direct exclamatory sentence. The independent sentence of exclamatory value (→ exclamatory); in writing it usually appears between exclamation marks: How it rains! How good is that suit!
22indirect exclamatory sentence. Which headed by a pronoun, an adjective or an exclamatory adverb, depends on a main predicate: It is impressive how the sax plays.
23. exhortative prayer. → exhortative.
24. explanatory sentence. → 3.
25. final sentence. The subordinate who expresses the purpose or intention with which the statement is made in the main sentence: Savings so that I am not missing anything tomorrow.
26. impersonal prayer. → impersonal.
27. direct interrogative prayer. The independent prayer whose purpose is to obtain information; In the writing it appears between question marks: What time is it? Did you read the ad?
28. indirect interrogative prayer. Which headed by a pronoun, an adjective or an interrogative adverb, or by the conjunction if, depends on a main predicate: Tell me who it has been; I know what the author’s name was; The customs officer asked him if he had anything to declare.
29. modal sentence. The subordinate who expresses the way or manner in which the statement in the main sentence is carried out: I painted the house as you told me.
30. negative sentence. The one that denies the denoted by the verb: Today I have not eaten anything; I will never get used to this.
31. passive prayer. The one that has a passive form or value (→ passive, 1).
32. main sentence. Prayer on which they depend, or which includes one or more subordinate sentences: If I can, I will call you.
33. simple prayer. The one that consists of a single predicate and, therefore, does not contain any other sentence: Buy me the newspaper.
34. subordinate prayer. Which depends on another or an element of another sentence: I will call you when I arrive; I’m sick of you treating me like that; The guy who came with me is an engineer.
35. substantive sentence. The subordinate who performs functions of the noun (subject, direct complement and preposition term): I’m glad you came; He needs help; I trust you will know how to understand it.
36. temporary prayer. The subordinate who expresses time: Whenever I hear music, I feel better; I will leave when I have finished work.
37. juxtaposed prayer. The one that, within a statement, joins another or others of the same syntactic level without a link or word of link between them; they separate with commas (sometimes semicolons) in writing: On vacation my children play sports, I read, my husband sunbathes, in short, everyone does what he likes .
ordinal. → ordinals, in the body of the dictionary.
patient. → subject, 3.
palatal. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced supporting the tongue on the hard palate, like that of the letters ch or ñ.
paradigm (verbal). Set of all forms of conjugation of a verb.
participle. 1. Non-personal form of the verb, capable of receiving gender and number marks, which is assimilated in its grammatical operation to the adjective. In Spanish it ends in -do (fem. -Da ) in regular verbs, and with it the compound times of conjugation are formed ( I have arrived , you have eaten , I had said ) and the forms of the peripheral passive ( I am loved , were feared , they were arrested ). It is also called passive, past or past participle, as opposed to the active participle or of present (→ 3 and 4). 2. Absolute participle. The one that appears in an absolute clause (→ absolute, 1 and 2). 3. active participle. Spanish verbal derivative that ends in – nte and denotes ability to perform the action expressed by the verb from which it derives. Many come from present Latin participles (→ 4) and today are integrated, for the most part, in the class of adjectives (alarming, permanent, swirling) or nouns (singer, student, president); some have become prepositions (during, through) or adverbs (quiet, however). 4. present participle. It is equivalent to active participle (→ 3). It is called that because in Latin it is formed on the subject of the present of the verbs, to which are added the corresponding breakdowns to the different cases. The present Latin participles are enunciated with the endings -ns, -ntis: amans, amantis.
partitive. 1. It is said of the complement that expresses the set that is taken or considered only one part: most of the attendees, any of their ties. 2. Numeral (→ numeral) expressing the number of equal parts which are taken or considered those in which a whole is divided: the third part of these two thirds of the participants. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
passive -va. 1. They have passive value or are in passive form the sentences or constructions that have a patient subject (the one that designates the entity that receives or suffers the action denoted by the verb; → subject, 3). In passive sentences, the agent of the action does not appear or appears as a complement (→ agent): A higher bridge was built; The news will be announced by the spokesman. In Spanish, the passive value is expressed through the constructions of peripheral passive (→ 2) and passive reflex (→ 3). In addition, the formally active structures that imply the existence of a patient subject, such as the infinitive of the construction subjects to be treated, make sense or passive value [= issues to be addressed] or easy issue to resolve [= issue that can be easily resolved]. 2. Peripheral passive. The passive that is constructed by a periphrasis (→ periphrasis, 2) formed by the auxiliary being and the participle of the main verb, which agrees with the subject: The sculptor was buried in her hometown; Those topics will be discussed at the next meeting. It is named in opposition to the passive reflex (→ 3). 3. Passive reflects. The one that is constructed with the pronominal form is followed by an active verb that matches the subject: The problem was resolved quickly; From here you can see the mountains. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
periphrasis. 1. Form of expression in which several words are used to express what can be said with fewer words or with only one. 2. Verbal periphrasis. Union of two verbs that work together as the core of the predicate; of them, the auxiliary, which is the one that is conjugated, provides the grammatical marks of time, number and person, in addition to some significant nuances, such as obligation, repetition, duration, etc. .; and the principal or aided, who appears in a non-personal form (infinitive, gerund or participle), brings the main lexical meaning: We have to go home; I have read your novel again; Your brother is still sleeping. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
peripheral -ca. 1. It is said of the expressions that constitute a periphrasis (→ periphrasis, 1). 2. Peripheral passive. → passive, 2.
personal. 1. personal forms of the verb. They are called thus the verbal forms whose disinfections indicate the grammatical person, in addition to the mode, the time and the number: we eat, you wrote, it will come. 2. non-personal forms of the verb. They are called the infinitive, the gerund and the participle, because they lack marks that indicate a grammatical person: eat, write, come. 3. personal verb. → verb, 12. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
pleonasm. Use of unnecessary words for the logical sense of the statement, with which it is often stressed, expressly, an idea already contained in another element of the sentence: I saw it with my own eyes ; I froze cold ; He finished the work in a very short period of time .
penetrative -va. That ponders, that is, that it praises, praises or makes more expensive, in reference to the emphasis that some linguistic elements contribute to the expression.
positive. → grade, 2. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
predicate. Segment of the sentence that preaches something of the subject (→ subject) and whose nucleus is generally a verb that matches the nucleus of the subject: The band leader ordered to release the kidnapped; My children are not. Some sentences have nonverbal predicates, such as the exclamative ¡A little long this movie! whose predicate is a little long.
predicative. Complement that attributes a property or characteristic to the subject or to the direct complement of a sentence through a verb with full lexical meaning, that is, a verb that is not copulative or semi copulative (→ verb, 4): Antonio came exhausted to his House; I found your sister very pretty ; The oldest deputy was appointed spokesperson . English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
predorsal It is said of the consonant sound whose articulation mainly involves the anterior part of the back of the tongue (predation), such as that of the letter ch or, in some areas of Spanish, that of the s.
predorsodental. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced supporting the predation of the tongue on the inner face of the upper teeth, such as that of the s in large areas of the Spanish-speaking area.
preposition. Word invariable and unattached (except according to) whose function is to introduce a noun or a nominal group (called preposition term) with which it forms a complement that depends syntactically on another element of the statement. In the current Spanish they are the following: a, before, under, with, against, from, during, in, between, towards, though, for, by, according, without, on, after. They are also prepositioning, of more restricted use, pro (association for human rights) and via (flew to Miami via London). English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
pronoun. 1. Word that works syntactically as a noun, but which, unlike this, lacks its own lexical content, and whose referent is determined by its antecedent or communicative situation. 2. critical pronoun. Atonic pronoun that, for lack of phonic independence, joins, for pronunciation purposes, with the tonic element (always a verb) that precedes or follows it. In Spanish they are me, te, se, nos, os, lo (s), la (s), le (s). 3. Enclitic pronoun. Clítico (→ 2) pronoun follows the verb and written joined this: do what gives seals. 4. personal pronoun.Personal pronouns are those that refer to one of the three grammatical people — first: the person who speaks; second: the person to whom it is spoken; and third: that which refers to any other person or thing. They can be unstressed: me, you, I know, we, you, the (s), the (s); or tonics: I, you, you, he, she (s), it (s), you (s), we, you, me, you, yes. 5. proclitically pronoun. Clitic pronoun (→ 2) that precedes the verb: I saw you, he told me. 6. relative pronoun. → relative. 7. Reflective pronoun. Personal pronoun whose antecedent is generally the subject, tacit or express, of the sentence in which it appears. They can be atonic: Mary is combed; or tonics: I pulled her gently towards me; Your sister thinks only of itself same. Sometimes the antecedent is not the subject of the sentence, but if an implicit Paraphrase in the sequence in which the reflective appears: Always helps your confidence in yourself it [= the confidence you have in yourself].
prostate in a conditional statement, part that expresses the condition. Normally it is headed by the conjunction if: If you cannot come, we will suspend the trip. It opposes apodosis (→ apodosis). It also applies to concession statements (→ concessional, 1): Even if you try hard, you will not be able to finish it on time.
root. Morpheme (→ morpheme) that in the word carries the basic lexical meaning and is common to the other words of its same family. Thus, the root is children – in boys, girls, babysitters, babysitters, etc.
reciprocal -ca. That expresses an action that occurs at the same time between two or more individuals, and that they exert on each other. The reciprocal sense is normally provided by the unstressed pronouns, us, or the pronominal construction of each other (with, with, etc.) the other: Sandra and I do not talk to each other; Pedro and Maria love each other; Those two always speak badly about each other. Sometimes, the reciprocal value follows from the verb itself (not from a pronoun), as in exchanging, sympathizing, etc..: My father and yours sympathize.
concerning. Entity (person, animal or thing) to which a linguistic sign refers. Thus, the referent of the noun table in the table of my office measures two meters is the concrete table to which the speaker refers, different from any other; and the referent of the pronoun you in Mary likes the music is the person named Mary.
reflective -va. It is said of the sentence that expresses an action that falls on the same entity designated by the subject: Yesterday I washed my hair; The culprit committed suicide. Reflective or reflective are the linguistic elements that contribute this meaning to the sentence, such as personal pronouns that, functioning as complements of the verb, have as a precedent the subject of the sentence (→ pronoun, 7): He washed his hands before eat; I have bathed in the river; You think too much about yourself .
regime. 1. Fact to govern or demand another word or others for its correct construction within a sentence. Thus, one speaks of the transitive regime of a verb if it is constructed with a direct complement, or of the intransitive regime if it does not carry it; and when talking about the prepositional regime of a verb, an adjective or a noun, reference is being made to the preposition or prepositions with which its complement is constructed. 2. regime supplement. → complement, 4.
regressive -va. It is said of the new words created by elimination or alteration of the final segment of those from which they come, such as the name Concha, regressive of Conchita (Spanish adaptation of the Italian Concetta, from the Latin concepta ‘conceived’), or the male guardian, regressive of the female guardian, or the singular incorrect footrest, regressive of the correct footrest.
relative. 1. It is said of the pronoun, the adjective or the adverb that, in addition to performing its function within the sentence to which it belongs, serves as a link between that sentence and the main one on which it depends. Relatives in Spanish are the pronouns (the) which, which and who, as well as the adjective whose, with its variants of gender and number, and the adverbs (a) where, when, how and how much. 2. relative prayer. Which is headed by a relative (→ 1): The guy who called yesterday has come; The problem, whose solution we long for, continues to worsen; we’ll go wherever you want. 3. emphatic relative prayer. Peripheral sentence (→ periphrasis, 1) of emphatic intention, in which the verb be joins two sentence components between which there is an identity relationship, of which the second is always headed by a pronoun or a relative adverb (→ 1) : With this weapon it is with which the crime was committed; Yesterday was when I saw your wife .
semantic -ca. 1. Relating to the meaning of words. 2. semantic tracing. → tracing, 2.
I wish → seseo, in the body of the dictionary.
syncopated -da. It is said in the way that results from eliminating one or more sounds inside a word: Christmas (nativity), franticide (fratricide).
synonymous. Word or expression that means the same as another, as habit and custom or buy and acquire.
loud -ra. It is said of the sound that is pronounced with vibration of the vocal cords, such as that of the consonants b, d, g, l, ll, m, n, ñ, r, rr, and, in addition to that of all the vowels.
deaf -da. It is said of the sound that is pronounced without vibration of the vocal cords, such as that of the consonants c, ch, f, j, k, p, t, s, z.
subordinate -da. 1. It is said of the grammatical element that depends syntactically on another, with respect to which it performs complement functions. 2. subordinate prayer. → prayer, 34.
suffix. Morpheme (→ morpheme) that is postponed to the root of a word to form derivatives or provide certain evaluative notions (diminutive, augmentative, derogatory, etc.): trompet ista, able aje, its month, azo body. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
subject. 1. Syntactic function exerted by the word or group of words whose referent something is preached to. It is, with the predicate (→ predicate), the other fundamental constituent of the sentence and imposes on the verb the concordance in number and person. By extension, it is called subject to the elements of a sentence that perform this function: My parents are teachers; That changes everything; You need to come. 2. subject agent. Subject that designates the entity that performs the action denoted by the verb: The doorman prevented us from passing; The wind knocked down the wall. 3. patient subject. Subject that designates the entity that receives or suffers from the action of the verb of its predicate: My cousin was operated yesterday; New villas have been built in my neighborhood. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
superlative. Adjective or adverb form that expresses the superlative degree (→ degree, 4).
noun. Word with inherent gender that designates people, animals or things and is able to function as the core of the subject (→ subject). It is equivalent to name (→ name).
tacit. Omitted or not express. Thus, the prayer I saw her worried has a tacit subject, which is me.
third person → verb, 16.
tonic -ca. It is said of the vowel, the syllable or the word that are pronounced with a prosodic accent (→ accent, 2).
place name. Place name (→ name, 10). English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
transcription. 1. Action of writing with a character system something written with another. Also, the act of representing the sounds of a language through certain symbols. 2. phonetic transcription. The one that represents speech sounds through conventional symbols. 3. phonological transcription. The one that represents by means of conventional symbols the sounds of a language considering only the distinctive features that serve to differentiate them from each other.
transitive. → verb, 17.
triphthong. → triphthong, in the body of the dictionary. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
ultra correction Deformation of a word or a construction by mistakenly believing that they are incorrect; eg bacalado (for cod ) is a ultracorrección due to the mistaken belief that the termination -ao is incorrect, as occurs in other cases ( soldao, Terminao, etc.); or I am glad that you came (for Glad you came ) may be a ultracorrección due to the mistaken belief that no construction of incorrect, as in I glad you came.
ultra-correct -ta. It is said of the form or construction fruit of an ultracorrection (→ ultracorrection).
vasquismo Language, expression or language characteristic of the Basque language that penetrate another language. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
to ensure. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by approaching or pasting the back of the back of the tongue to the veil of the palate (muscular membrane that separates the mouth from the pharynx), such as that of the letters k, g, j. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
verb. 1. Word that denotes action, state or process, capable of functioning as the core of the predicate and whose endings express mode, time, number and person. 2. auxiliary verb. The one that serves to form the compound tenses of the verbs, the peripheral passive (→ passive, 2) and the verbal periphrasis (→ periphrasis, 2): I have finished; you were rewarded; we have to work; He has to eat. 3. causative verb. Causative 4. copulative verb.The one that, practically void of lexical meaning, serves as a union between a subject and an attribute (→ attribute) and admits that it is replaced by the neutral pronoun lo; Spanish are the verbs be, be and seem: The conference was interesting [ it was ]; The patient is calm [ is ]; You look tired [ you look like it ] . Verbs that serve as a link between a subject and an attribute are considered semi-positive , but do not support the substitution of this by the pronoun lo: Juanhe’s worried these days [* he’s ]; The child is still asleep [* follows ]; The guy went crazy [* turned it ]. 5. verb of psychic condition. The one that, like boring, entertaining, admiring or fearing, denotes processes that affect the mood or produce emotional actions or reactions. 6. status verb. The one that implies state or situation, like staying or sitting, as opposed to those that involve movement or direction, like going or heading. 7. defective verb. The one who does not conjugate in all times and people, such as coffin (which only conjugates in the third persons), soler (which, by denoting habitual action, does not conjugate in some times, such as the future or the conditional) or preterify (of which only the forms whose withdrawal begins with i ) are used. 8. influence verb. The one who, like advising, exhorting, forcing or ordering, expresses an action that aims to influence someone to do or stop doing something. 9. impersonal verb. The one that lacks subject, is tacit or express (→ impersonal). 10. intransitive verb. The one who cannot carry a direct complement (→ complement, 5), such as going or being born. 11. irregular verb. Which, when combined, undergoes changes in root in some of its forms or takes endings different from the regular pattern that corresponds to its completion, as snow (in the present it is snowing, and not neva ) or lead (the that corresponds the way I drove, and I didn’t drive ) 12. personal verb. In opposition to impersonal (→ 9), the one who is subject, whether tacit or express. Thus, today impersonal have been used as a personal verb, with the meaning of ‘having’, in medieval and classical Spanish: “Agora avemos wealth” (Cid [Esp. C1140]). 13. pronominal verb. The one that is constructed in all its forms with an unstressed pronoun that agrees with the subject and does not perform any syntactic sentence function. Some verbs are exclusively pronominal, such as repenting or boasting, and others adopt certain significant or expressive nuances in pronominal construction, such as falling or dying, facing to fall or die. 14. regular verb. The one that fits in all its forms to the model set as regular that corresponds to its completion. 15. semi copulative verb. → 4. 16. third-person verb. Verb whose personal forms are used only those of the third person singular and plural, how to occur or concern. 17. transitive verb. Which is built with direct complement (→ complement, 5), how to have or say. English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
vernacular -the. It speaks of the language spoken in the country in question and the forms of expression that are proper to it; Thus, the vernacular of France is French.
vibrant. It is said of the consonant sound that is pronounced by supporting the tongue in the upper alveoli and producing with it one or several vibrations, for interrupting the air outlet once or several times, such as that of r in but (simple vibrating) and that of rr in dog (multiple vibrant).
vocal. Letter that corresponds to a vowel sound (→ vowel). English Linguistics Terms/Glossary
vocalic. It is said of the sound in whose pronunciation the exhaled air finds no obstacle in its exit to the outside.
vocalization. Conversion of a consonant sound into a vowel one.
vocative. Word or group of words that refer to the interlocutor and are used to call or address him directly: How is my father, doctor? My dear friend, what a joy to see you! I think, son , you were wrong.