Next, we will take a tour of this concept, first to learn about its main qualities and uses, and then to delve into a list with different examples of quantitative research that will complement that previous theoretical introduction.
Understanding quantitative research
Although the main objective of this article is to be able to review a list of examples of quantitative research, it is necessary to have a theoretical basis that allows us to delve into that field. Therefore, we will dedicate this first part to review the most important data in this regard.
Quantitative research is a way of doing science through empirical studies whose data is collected using numerical tools . That is, the phenomena observed by the researcher can be quantified and recorded, either in a statistical, computational or mathematical way in general.
The fundamental difference with qualitative investigations, as we will discover later when reviewing the list of examples of quantitative research, is that in the latter a number, a value, can be assigned to the studied condition, and discover if it increases or decreases when it is exposes the subject to a given stimulus.
With the data collected from the selected population sample, the researcher will be able to extrapolate the conclusions to the entire population as a whole, provided that a sufficiently representative sample has been selected and all study variables have been controlled. This type of research is objective and has the purpose of verifying the validity of previous hypotheses .
Types of quantitative research
Likewise, before moving on to the examples of quantitative research, we must know the typologies of this type of work. We will review them below. Quantitative research examples for students
1. Descriptive research
We can find several ways to do quantitative research. The first one is descriptive, the simplest but also the most essential, since it refers to the previous observation of the phenomenon that the researcher has carried out and on which he has already established the first hypotheses to try to explain what he has recorded. .
2. Analytical research
A more elaborate form is what we find with analytical research. In this case, an element that is key to the study is introduced: the comparison between the study group and the control group , that is, between a group that is subjected to a certain stimulus, and a group that is not subjected to it. , to be able to check what changes are due to that element.
3. Experimental research
In the previous case, it is important to bear in mind that the researcher does not apply any stimulus, he simply limits himself to observing the group that is receiving it. If, deliberately, the researcher applied certain conditions to a group of people and compared it with another group, the control, we would be talking about experimental research . We will see some cases in the list of quantitative research examples.
4. Quasi-experimental research
The last type is that of quasi-experimental research, and is halfway between analytical and experimental. In this case, the selection of participants in the groups is not random, but rather the individuals are selected deliberately to try to balance the conditions of both groups.
Different examples of quantitative research
After establishing a knowledge base about this topic, it is time to delve into the examples of quantitative research, with which we will acquire a complete perspective of this type of study. Next we will see some of the most representative. Quantitative research examples for students
1. Pharmacological tests
One of the easiest ways to visualize the concept at hand is to think about the studies to verify the efficacy of a certain drug, something that is done continuously but perhaps is more visible in recent times due to the information bombardment related to the pandemic of COVID-19. The tests that are done to test possible vaccines are one of the examples of quantitative research.
In this case, two groups are created, one experimental, to which the potential vaccine is applied and the other control, which only receives a placebo . After a while, the infection rates experienced by both groups are compared and it is concluded that the difference in favor of the experimental group is the effectiveness rate of the vaccine in question. Among the types that we saw before, this would be an example of experimental research.
2. Characteristics of the species
If, on the contrary, we want to visualize a descriptive research case, we could think about the work that zoologists do when they find a new species. They record all the measurements of the individual found to establish what the average characteristics of that animal are. The difference with the previous example is that in this case, the researcher limits himself to describing what he is seeing, without influencing the subject at all.
This would be another of the examples of quantitative research that help us better understand what types of studies we can find.
3. Satisfaction surveys
Another of the typical cases in which anyone may have participated at some time are the well-known satisfaction surveys. Many companies and organizations contact the users of their products or services after consuming them, to propose brief questions to give them a numerical value to their satisfaction. It can be through a phone call, automated or not, through an email or through other methods. Quantitative research examples for students
It is a method used constantly, as it allows companies to obtain very valuable statistical information at a low cost, which helps them improve the quality of their services. For this reason, it is one of the clearest and most abundant examples of quantitative research that we find in our day to day.
4. Audience measurement
Also in the commercial field, another of the most common techniques is the measurement of the audiences of the published audiovisual content, or what is the same, the impact of these . These studies can be adapted to the environment in which the campaign in question was launched. For example, in the most traditional, such as television or radio, audience measurements are carried out.
In the most modern platforms, such as publications on social networks, the impact is measured through different factors, such as the views received, the number of interactions (“likes” or equivalent, comments, times it has been shared , etc.) or the number of clicks on the hyperlink.
All these data are mathematically quantified and allow the researcher to carry out a detailed analysis on the level of success of the campaign . It would, therefore, be one of the examples of quantitative research that we should take into account the most due to its usefulness and frequency of use.
5. Psychological experiments
Of course, we cannot forget about psychological experiments as another example of quantitative research. We find countless of them, and from many different categories. Most of these studies are experimental, that is, with a group that will be affected by a variable introduced by the researcher, and in comparison with a control group, which will not undergo said change.
Thanks to these works, experimental psychology has managed to accumulate a great deal of knowledge about the functioning of the human mind , establishing associations about the responses that individuals tend to emit when faced with a specific stimulus and under certain conditions. Quantitative research examples for students
6. General statistics
National organizations, such as the National Institute of Statistics, in the case of Spain, are dedicated to doing a huge quantitative research work. Thanks to these records, other researchers can benefit from the enormous collection of data and analyze it based on the studies they are conducting . This type of database offers information about a multitude of variables that affect the population of a territory.
We can segment this population based on variables such as sex, age, the region in which they live, the degree of training achieved, the labor sector in which they are included, and many others. You can also consult statistics about birth, mortality, crime, and other different issues. These data are of a public nature, so anyone can take advantage of them to carry out studies and generate new knowledge.
This would be the last of the different examples of quantitative research that we have been able to review, which have helped us to complement that first theoretical introduction with which the article began, so that now we can have the full perspective of the implications in this way to do science.