Types of languages in English with characteristics
Types of language
Language is only part of communication. It has many types which cover the whole scenario. there is more than one type of language or method of communication through which we transmit information. In this sense, we can classify different types. One of them is based on the level of naturalness or artificiality with which the symbol code used is used. Types of languages in English
1. Natural language
Natural language is the language that we all speak ordinarily (Spanish, Catalan, English, French, etc.) and refers to those languages that have been developed spontaneously by a group of people with the purpose of communicating. It is different from other types of languages, such as programming languages or mathematical language.
Thus, or natural language we understand all that type of communication act that unconsciously uses the code learned and assimilated during childhood and the development process, typical of the environment and culture of belonging. Types of languages in English
2. Artificial language
It is understood as such all language created and used consciously with the objective of fulfilling a specific objective, expressing itself in a different way from the natural one, or in order to specify technical aspects that can be ambivalent and difficult to understand through natural language.
Artificial language is not born spontaneously, but is created and does not respond to the purpose of general-purpose communication. The programming language is a clear example, as it is a language to communicate with computers and between devices that compute. Therefore, it can be said that it is a type of ad hoc language, in whose origins there has been a clear specific objective, linked to a specific context.
Within the artificial language, formal language, literary and poetic language stand out as a form of emotional and artistic expression and technical language (within which we can find specific languages of different disciplines such as legal or medical language). Next, we will see its characteristics. Types of languages in English
The type of written language that writers use. It may seem the same as cult language, however, colloquial and even vulgar twists can be introduced. It is a type of language that creates beauty and complex literary plots, as well as communication. In it, the forms matter a lot, and the attempts of expression do not only focus on the explicit content of the messages. For example, the fact of making a fictional character speak with a certain accent serves to build his role in history, since he can report on his ethnic or social origins.
4.Scientific and technical language
The scientific and technical language is made up of jargon, that is, they are languages that use different social groups and professional associations and that vary with respect to the standard language. In addition, they are normative and objective. Language is technical in the sense that it is used in different activities, professions, or plots of science. This is because it is necessary to be clear in advance about the precise meaning of the words and the ways of formulating the messages so as not to fall into procedural errors derived from a misunderstanding of what has been communicated.
The scientific language is similar to the previous one. However, the main difference between the two is in their purpose. While the scientific language refers to the transmission of knowledge, the technical language aims to transmit information not with a theoretical purpose, but with an immediate and specific practical purpose. Types of languages in English
Formal language is less personal than informal language and is used for professional or academic purposes. This type of language does not use colloquialisms, contractions, or pronouns like “you” or “you.” Instead, use “your,” “you,” or “you.”
In a way, the main reason for the formal language is to give the communicative context importance or solemnity that serves to make that place or act something that is respected, which is above the individual people who are communicating.
Native language is the one that the individual acquired from childhood, that is, the language with which he learned to speak and, which he uses naturally as his instrument of communication and thought. It is also designated as mother tongue .
It is called a vernacular language that is typical of a country or place , that is, it is the language used in the domestic environment, in our home and in our country.
In the twentieth century, the Catholic Church stipulated that the Mass should be celebrated in the vernacular language of each country and not in Latin, which meant that in Spanish-speaking countries the Mass began to be given in Spanish.
The official language refers to anyone who has been designated by a State to be the language used in institutional communications and public events by the authorities and citizens of that State.
9.MOTHER TONGUE AND SECOND LANGUAGE
The mother tongue is the one that is assimilated in the home or most immediate social group, often unconsciously. Although there are several criteria to define this term, it is generally considered that a mother tongue meets these characteristics:
- It is the first language learned.
- It is learned, generally, by transmission from the mother.
- It is the language that the individual feels as their own, therefore tends to use it to communicate complex ideas in intellectual or emotional terms, compared to other languages acquired later.
For its part, the second language is learned through conscious study and is generally used as a second option, after the mother tongue.
10.NATURAL LANGUAGE AND CONSTRUCTED LANGUAGE
The natural language is that which is established according to social practice over time, which is what determines the configuration of signs that make up the communication system. Its evolution may be influenced by other languages.
While the constructed language is a creation of one or several individuals, who deliberately establish the signs and norms that will govern that language, hence it is also called the planned language.
The Quenya and Sindarin , for example, were created by JRR Tolkien for the world of Arda, where pass most of his fiction, including The Lord of the Rings.
11.LIVING LANGUAGE AND DEAD LANGUAGE
A living language is one that is used consistently in a group or community large enough to ensure its evolution and transmission over time, regardless of whether it is native or dominant, natural or constructed.
Guarani, an indigenous language used in Paraguay as a co-official language, as well as in some parts of Bolivia, Brazil and Argentina, is an example of a living language.
On the other hand, a dead language no longer has speakers, which prevents maintaining its continuity. Latin is a dead language, since although there are documents in that language, and it is used in the Vatican, it does not have enough speakers to maintain its continuity.
Self-centered language is a type of language that is observed in children and that is an integral part of their development. Originally it was Jean Piaget who gave name to this type of language, and this famous character affirmed that it happens because the child is not a very social being at an early age and speaks only for himself.
According to Piaget, over time, the child is related to his environment and this type of speech disappears. Instead, for Vygotsky, over time this type of speech evolves and helps children organize and regulate their thinking.
Another term that Piaget coined to refer to the linguistic behavior of children. The social language is characterized because the fate of information and communication goes outward, in an adaptive way, and to relate to the environment. The child adapts the dialogue to the interlocutor.
According to the communicative element used
Language can also be classified according to what type of elements are used in communicative exchange.
1. Verbal language
Verbal language is characterized by the use of words when interacting with another person (or persons) , either through written or spoken language. Now, not only does it refer solely to the use of words, but also to shouts, acronyms, hieroglyphs, etc.
On the other hand, this is a type of language that starts from the establishment of norms and symbols whose interpretation has been agreed upon beforehand (although there is a certain space to dissent). Therefore, it takes time to learn how to use it.
Oral language is basically spoken language. This type of language is a combination of sounds used to express thinking, in which sounds are grouped into spoken words. A spoken word can be a single sound or a group of sounds. To express something these words must be grouped correctly following a series of rules.
In addition, this is one of the first types of verbal language that appeared in our evolutionary history, probably next to the iconic language, or shortly thereafter. Types of languages in English
Oral language sounds are represented by letters to form written language. In other words, oral language has equivalent words in written language. These words are reflected on paper or on a computer, and express ideas, and just as happens in oral language, these words must be grouped appropriately for the correct expression.
It is another type of nonverbal language that uses basic symbols and defines ways to combine them. The basic symbols are vocabulary, and how to combine grammar.
2. Nonverbal language
This type of language is carried out without words and, in many cases, the person who performs it is not aware. The look, the way of sitting, walking, gestures, body movements, are some examples of nonverbal communication.
It is a type of nonverbal language that is expressed through the body. Gestures, facial expressions, body movements, and even body odors are kinesic language.
It is a non-verbal language that appears specifically in the way in which the muscles of the face move, an area to which we are very sensitive since there are areas of our brain dedicated to detecting facial expressions and giving them meaning.