Paralinguistic and extralinguistic elements with examples in detail


The Paralinguistic is part of the study of human communication that is interested in the elements that accompany the actual broadcast language and signals and signs are usually non – verbal, which contextualize suggest particular interpretations of the actual linguistic information. Paralinguistic and extralinguistic elements with examples

Study the non-verbal elements, although phonetic and sound, of human communication, which are used to complement, qualify or emphasize the oral message. Such as the tone of voice, body positioning, gestures, pauses in speaking, eye contact, among other aspects that show the attitude of the speaker to the listener

Paralinguistic competence

It is the ability of the speaker to use non-linguistic signs appropriately to communicate the message in a pleasant way and capture the attention of the person who listens to it. For example, if a person’s tone of voice is very low, surely it will not be possible to understand what he is saying or if it is very loud, it can stun instead of communicating, so the speaker with good paralinguistic competence moderates his tone of voice accordingly. to the context in which it is found. Paralinguistic and extralinguistic elements with examples

Paralinguistics is a learned code

There is some evidence in favor of the fact that, as is the case with strictly linguistic emissions, paralinguistic information implies a learned code since, for example, Mandarin Chinese announcers would not use the same sound variants as Spanish speakers to express surprise or surprise. anger.

Main paralinguistic elements

Some characteristics that accompany the linguistic information such as:

  • The intensity or volume of the voice.
  • The speed of emission of the sentences.
  • The tone and the intonation variants and the duration of the syllables.
  • Crying, laughing, rhythm, fluency, control of respiratory and articulatory organs, etc.

Importance of Paralinguistic elements

The use of elements such as laughter, crying, mimicry, sighs, or gestures is of vital importance when it comes to complementing linguistic competence. These help the interlocutor to show emotions, create emphasis, convey tranquility, among others

The paralinguistic elements are those non-linguistic elements, such as laughter, crying, gestures, mimics, etc. that are part of the communication and accompany the face-to-face verbal message. Written texts also use paralinguistic elements to emphasize messages. The punctuation and expression signs, (:,; … ¿? ¡!) Are the paralinguistic tools of written language.

  • Other paralinguistic elements are silence, the noise of the air, of the water, the voices of the different characters, the music, among others. Communication has a series of elements involved and they are not only verbal elements. The non-verbal component, together with the verbal component, constitutes communication and comprises: What we say, that is the words.The way we say, that is, the paralanguage.The way we move, that is, the kinesic.

    More than 90% of communication is done through non-verbal elements since we communicate 7% through the verbal channel, 38% through the paralinguistic channel, and 55% through the kinesic channel.

The most common Paralinguistic elements in advertising

The logo, the colors, the shape of the letters are part of the paralinguistic elements used as part of a mixed code in advertising (written and verbal language) all in order to sell or increase the sales of a service or product.

What role does Paralinguistics play in public speaking?

It is of great relevance, because the interlocutor may have perfect diction when speaking but if he does not use paralinguistic elements, his oratory will not be effective. You must show your expressiveness since the purpose of oratory is to capture attention, persuade the audience by speaking with a language not only verbal but also body. Paralinguistic and extralinguistic elements with examples

Extralinguistic Elements

The extralinguistic elements are those that surround the communicative act; for example, the roles played by the interlocutors (the speakers), the place where they are, etc. All this also influences the way of saying things.

  • The context, that is, the time and space in which the conversation takes place and which can pose certain communication challenges or hinder the understanding of the message.
  • The gestures and pragmatic elements, which do not have to do with what is said but with how it is said, what face does it put on, what is done with the hands, how close it is said to the other, and a whole set of information that does not form part of the language, but significantly modifying the information transmitted.
  • The personal capacities of each interlocutor, that is, their personal and particular ability to communicate: the functioning of their anatomy, their linguistic competence, their linguistic training, etc.

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