Applied Linguistics

Elements of informational text/characteristics/examples

Informative text

The informative text is a type of written text whose purpose is, as its name says, to inform. Its function is to transmit to the reader certain information, data, descriptions, real facts or knowledge of any nature. Elements of informational text

He does not use any type of rhetorical figures (such as metaphors, redundancies, hyperbole, etc.), since his wish is to convey knowledge as faithfully as possible. To achieve this, it uses clear, precise, direct language, devoid of opinions or arguments.

An informational text objectively presents the facts or data. Examples are news, articles with encyclopedic content, informative texts, specialized texts, such as scientific articles, or film synopses.

Characteristics of the informative texts Elements of informational text

The informative text shares certain traits that must be met:

1-No argumentation or opinions

As its purpose is to inform (and not to convince or persuade), the informative text is only concerned with presenting the fact, without trying to influence the reader in any way. The third person and the simple past or future are preferred.

2-Clear and precise language

Use careful but simple and direct language, aimed at any reader. The language without metaphors wants to make sure that the interlocutor understands the information that is being transmitted without any doubt.

3-Rhetorical strategies Elements of informational text

This point reinforces the previous one: there will be special care in the use of punctuation marks (commas, periods, ellipsis, question marks or exclamation marks) so that the discursive strategy is expository and objective. Elements of informational text

Therefore, no adjectives will appear that allude to moral or valuation judgments (“the corrupt politician”, “the wicked and cruel murderer”, “desperate situation”, etc.) nor will the use of exclamations. The speech thus tries to be as objective as possible.

4-Resources that help

To provide the reader with orderly information, and help him understand the text, the author may use glossaries, indexes, tables, images, highlighted text, various graphics and bibliographic sources, where the reader can go in search of more information or to corroborate it. .

5-Real topics

The topics covered by the informative text always belong to the realm of reality. That is to say, they are not fiction or literature .

6-Brevity

By this he refers to the length of sentences. An informational text will have short, concise sentences. And equally short paragraphs.

In this sense, the syntactic construction will be the simplest: subject – verb – complements. An erroneous example: “Together with his ministers, the president approved the budget law”; the correct form would be: “the president approved the budget law together with his ministers.”

Likewise, the active voice is preferred to the passive voice, the affirmative sentences to the negative ones and sentences without subsections or subordinations.

Elements of an informative text text Elements of informational text

Informational texts are made up of a series of elements with different functions and very easy to recognize.

Headline. It is the heading of the informational text. It is a first level of information whose function is to condense the fundamental and attract the attention of the receiver. It can have the following items.

  • Headband. Heading that gives continuity to information by linking it to other news on the same subject.
  • Pre-title. General statement of the information. It usually contextualizes it.
  • Qualification. Maximum synthesis of the information that responds to the two or three most important W’s and announces the content of the text.
  • Subtitle. Add additional information to the title.
  • Brick Order and group the contents of the body of information, attracting attention and distending the reading, breaking the graphic continuity of the text.
  • Summary. They are summaries of highlights of the information, often verbatim phrases or statements, in which case they are enclosed in quotation marks. They attract attention and distract reading.
  • Entradilla. Summarize the news giving an answer to its most important aspects. Sometimes it acts as a lead. It is highlighted typographically.

Lead. It is the first paragraph of the information and summarizes the news responding to the 5W. It is the most important paragraph.

Neck. Secondary information used as a link between the lead and the body of the news.

Body. Information development. It is the most extensive part of the news and if it is short it can coincide with the lead.

Exploded view. Aspects of the information or documentation on the same that are broken down from the body and offered separately with their own title, but that is meaningless outside of the unit that forms with the informative text. Elements of informational text

Graphic material. It complements the text by showing graphic evidence of the information helping to understand the news. They can be photos, graphics, drawings or infographics.

Caption. Text that complements the content of the photo and closes your message.

When composing your informative texts, the editor or the editor of the association can use all these elements, although it is not essential. What we believe should never be lacking is a title, clearly differentiated, a lead and a well-structured body of information that, if it is extensive, will include bricks every twenty lines or so.

Informational text types

Informational texts cover several types; for example, journalistic (news), informative articles (such as encyclopedia or dictionaries), specialized (or scientific) or biographical notes.

1-Newspaper or news text Elements of informational text

Describe a recent event. The issuer (author) tries to explain the fact in the most objective way possible, adjusting to the veracity of the facts, without falsifying them. Information on specific things will be given in the news:

  • What happened
  • When
  • Where
  • Who was involved
  • How it happened
  • Why it happened

2-Informative texts

Informative texts are a type of informative text because their function is to explain in a close and simple way more complex topics, generally scientific (biology, geology, anthropology, etc.), with a language understandable to anyone.

The encyclopedic articles are framed within the informative and, of course, the informative.

3-Specialized texts Elements of informational text

Specialized texts, like scientists of any discipline, report a topic to an also specialized and prepared reader, with previous knowledge without which they would not be able to access the understanding of the text. Elements of informational text

4-Biographical note

It will be an informative text when the intention of this note is to provide readers with objective data about a specific person, without delving into their feelings or pretending to know more deeply their life. Elements of informational text

The dates of birth and death, the place where he was born, the names of parents and siblings if relevant, studies carried out and the reason why he is considered an important person are given.

5-Formal letter

Formal letters are considered informational texts because they function as a means of communicating specific information about something in particular. That is, the main function of a formal letter is to express to the recipient information that is of interest to him.

A resignation letter, termination notice, request for authorization, or budget allocation are examples of information that can be developed into a formal letter. Elements of informational text

6-Report Elements of informational text

The report is a text whose main function is also to inform. This type of informative text focuses on dissemination related to scientific research, management results in the business field, field studies, among others.

There are numerous types of reports: scientific reports, technical reports, work life reports, social service report, epidemiological report, health status report, etc.

Function of an informational text Elements of informational text

As has been said throughout this article, the primary function of informational text is to objectively explain a fact of reality. The intention is to inform, not to convince or argue.

Informational Text Examples

1-Biographical note

Simone de Beauvoir (Paris, 1908-1986) was a French writer, philosopher and teacher. He fought for women’s rights, for the decriminalization of abortion and for the freedom of sexual relations. He wrote numerous novels, biographies, and essays on political, philosophical, and social issues. His thought runs within the existentialist philosophical current.

She is the author of The Second Sex (1949), the founding book of feminism, and was a partner of the French writer and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre.

2-Dictionary Elements of informational text

From the Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (DRAE):

“To dedicate:

  1. tr. Consecrate, dedicate something to religious worship or also to a profane purpose or use.
  2. tr. Address someone, as a gift, any object, and mainly a literary or artistic work.
  3. tr. Employ, allocate, apply. Utc prnl ”.

3-News

Buenos Aires, September 22. Ramona Galarza, the “Bride of Paraná”, died at the Pirovano Hospital in Buenos Aires.

The well-known 80-year-old singer from Corrientes had suffered a cardiorespiratory arrest and was admitted to the Pirovano Hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, where she died.

Ramona Galarza was a chamamé singer, a folk musical genre typical of the Argentine northeast. The popular singer was much loved in the province of Corrientes, where she was from, and the news has saddened the country’s cultural scene. Elements of informational text

She dedicated her life to the dissemination of chamamé and Argentine folklore, recorded numerous albums and was baptized as “Paraná’s girlfriend” for her active participation in festivals, theaters, peñas, and radio and television programs.

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