What is Preposition?
Although it is considered a part of the sentence, the preposition has no lexical meaning or flexion of any kind and its value is fully grammatical .
As it was said before, the prepositions have the function of relating or subordinating one word or another, since they can indicate the destiny, origin, origin, place, motive, means, time, among others, according to what it expresses in the sentence.
For example, in the noun phrase “the attic of my friend” a prepositional phrase (of my friend) is distinguished, formed by the preposition “of”, which serves as a link, and the noun phrase (my friend), which functions as term of the preposition.
Only a noun or a word, phrase or sentence that is substantiated, such as “the movie I am talking about,” can be propositional.
Classification of prepositions
Next, the classification and examples of the use of prepositions.
|Type of prepositions||Prepositions||Examples|
|Of place||to, from, in, between, towards, after, under||I come from the church.
I looked to the left and saw it.
|Of time||to, with, from, in, for, over, over, after, until||I will not go out with this cold.
The cup is on the table.
|Of cause||by||He did it for me.|
|Of purpose||to||I took it to stop coughing.|
|Of company||with||I prefer to be with my family.|
|So||to, with, of, in, by, under, according||Drive with caution.
Elsa is the supervisor.
|Instrument||to, with, of, in||Tie it with the ropes.|
|Deprivation||without||We are in a dead end street .|
|Of opposition||against||I am against the reform.|
Prepositions in English
Generally, it is placed before the noun or pronoun, except in questions, and with the relative pronoun when it is followed by a preposition.
Some of the main prepositions in English are to , up , with , for , in , on , of , since , about , after , at , by , except , into , near , off , ever , among others.
It should be noted that not all prepositions in Spanish correspond to translation in English or other languages.
List and examples:
- Address that leads or the term to which someone or something is headed. Examples: I go to Madrid, to visit some friends. Those letters are written to your mother. He goes to the supermarket to buy some vegetables.
- Order or exhortation. Examples: To bathe! Everyone to bed! To do the homework!
- Place or time when something happens. Examples: He was contacted at the entrance of his house. I’ll call in the afternoon. They brought the dog to the farm.
- Situation of someone or something. Examples: It was to the left of his father. To his right was the boss. To the east you must go well sheltered.
- In front of (in front of). Examples: He stood before him and told him many truths. He began to cry before the public. He spoke as never before the audience.
- In the presence of. Examples: Before the father he said that he did love him. He said yes to his whole family. They argued a long time before their children.
- In comparison, with respect to. Examples: His words were not so offensive, before his. His work, before the rest of the workers, was the best. Mark’s grades were higher, compared to his sister’s.
- Under (instead of less than). Examples: They put the water under the scales. The cat was under the bed. They found the ball under the roof.
This preposition lacks use today. It is commonly used in poetry.
- It means near, next to. Examples: Silver is fits the watch. The keys are fits the vase. I find myself fit the apple tree.
- Medium, mode or instrument Chinese . In addition, it was used to do something. Examples: He did it with his prodigious hands. This is the recipe with which I like to make cakes. With a bucket full of water he was able to clean his house.
- Before the infinitive, it is equivalent to gerund. Examples: By talking, problems are fixed. By clearly exposing the situation, the truth can be clarified. With crying, you don’t solve anything.
- Opposition and contrariety of one thing with another. Examples: The match will be against the champions of the last tournament. I don’t like going against my principles. They married against the will of their parents.
- In front of. Examples: He stood against me and greeted me. He was sitting against the board and could not see. Against him he denied the causes of his dismissal.
- Towards (denotes sense of a movement). Examples: He came against me to greet me. He ran out and crashed into a wall. He went face to face against a pole.
- In exchange for (exchange). Examples: He told me that the silver was given upon delivery of the product. The delivery of the merchandise is cash on delivery. He received money against service provision.
- Possession or membership. Examples: This is my parents’ farm. Julio’s pet is a cat. That briefcase is from Ana.
- To create various adverbial locutions of mode. Examples: He had to eat standing up. He dresses brand. I know him by sight.
- Denotes where someone or something is from, comes or goes. Examples: You do not leave your home at night. That wine is from Spain. I come from Argentina and I think I’m coming back.
- Material from which something is made. Examples: The mirror is glass. I bought a silk blouse. The red ball is plastic.
- Denotes the point, in time or place, from which it comes, originates or has to begin to tell a thing, a fact or a distance. Examples: Since the Income Tax Law came into effect, any tax must be levied. Since the creation of life there are many changes that humanity has undergone. He sent me many gifts from Canada.
- It is also used in adverbial phrases. Examples: Since then, everything changed for good. I will share everything from here. From now on we will be the best friends.
- After. Examples: Since you left, nothing was the same again. My life changed 180 degrees, from that wonderful day. He became stronger, from all those situations he had to live.
- To introduce the perspective, focus, aspect or opinion expressed. Examples: From my opinion, I think they are right. From a political perspective, these decisions do not take us anywhere. From his point of view, things look very easy.
- Denotes simultaneity. Examples: The event was held during the summer days. During my time at school, I was a very disciplined student. He didn’t want to talk to me for a long time.
- It denotes in what place, time or way what is expressed by the verb referred to is performed. Examples: Mateo is with his family in Spain. The event was held in the month of December. I have a clothes soak, then wash it.
- It means about. Examples: The president said there will be a tax on the liquor. Yesterday there was another increase in gasoline. There will be a significant increase in the family basket.
- Denotes what someone deals with or excels. Examples: Juan has always stood out for his performance in environmental engineering. Pedro enjoys working in medicine very much. Sara has a lot of knowledge in new technologies.
- Denotes the situation or state in the middle of two or more things. Examples: Juan was located between Sara and Jorge. The bathroom is between the living room and the dining room. I always eat something between evening and night.
- Denotes the meaning of a movement, a tendency or an attitude. Examples: Everything he achieved led him to the path of triumph. He always had a good attitude towards bad things. His love for him was unconditional.
- Around, near. Examples: The flight leaves at five in the afternoon. The hotel is towards the church. The farm is towards the rocky mountain.
- Denotes term or limit. Examples: On the trip I go to Argentina. The comments reached her. He counted to one hundred and she never appeared.
- Even or even. Examples: I think even he would agree. He complains even when he is eating. He laughed even with bad jokes.
- Through, with, with the help of. Examples: The campaign can be done through fences installed in the street. We must demonstrate by our vote that we disagree with the decision. A good idea is defended by a clear explanation.
- Denotes the end or term to which an action is directed. Examples: To get to work I must take two buses. He laughed very hard to get the attention of all his teammates. He ran a lot to organizational culture. Only with this data will HR be able to reach it .
- Towards (denotes sense of a movement). Examples: He always had an answer for all the questions he was asked. The goals achieved were for his family. I told him that you always had to look forward.
- To indicate the place or time to which it is deferred or determined to execute something or finish it. Examples: Milena will pay two weeks of her free time, to compensate for the damage. He spent a lot of time investing in it. He spent five years of his life, to understand it.
- Indicates the agent in passive sentences. Examples: The bicycle was repaired by Juan. The food was made by his mother. The task was done by Jaime.
- Before place-names, denotes transit through the indicated place. Examples: I went to the airport for Santa Elena. To go to Mexico from Colombia, you have to go through Central America. Juanita, to get to Brazil, must pass through Colombia.
- Before place-names, it indicates approximate location. Examples: That country remains for Europe. Argentina is in the south of America. El Salvador is located in Central America.
- Denotes specific part or place. Examples: He grabbed me by the arm and kissed me. The dog is in the room barking. He grabbed me by the hair and disheveled me.
- In accordance, or in accordance, a. Examples: Depending on the problem, the solution must be given in a group. According to the new law, you cannot drink in the street. Depending on the situation, we must wait to see what can happen.
- Before personal names or pronouns, in accordance or according to what the people in question say or say. Examples: According to what he says, the flight was delayed due to bad weather. According to what my mother tells me, the house went out and, for that reason, there is no food. According to what the professor said, the workshop must be delivered resolved next Friday.
- In proportion or correspondence a. Examples: A work contract will be made, as agreed with it. I will explain the subject again, according to the attitude and attention they put. I will pay 20,000 pesos, depending on the work you have done to me.
- Denotes lack or lack of something. Examples: We cannot go far without money. You can’t go outside without documents. Life is easier without problems.
- Outside or in addition to. Examples: In my luggage I carry a lot of clothes, without shoes. In the market I bought many vegetables, without fruits. I have many things to eat, without candy.
- Before a verb in infinitive, it is equivalent to not with its participle or gerund. Examples: I left without seeing it and it was what I most wanted. He left without eating, because he thought he would receive a giant banquet. I go without sleep to work, because last night I could not fall asleep.
Currently, very few people use this preposition.
- Low, below. Examples: They were forced to go to the conference, under penalty of labor penalty if they did not attend. On the pretext, he informed him that he could not attend the academic event. There was a lot of water or a layer of cement.
- Above. Examples: He left the food on the table. The lamp is on the desk. On that book I found the money.
- About. Examples: Julio knows a lot about the study of social classes stands out. This topic involves many aspects and can be understood from different angles; therefore, it is the subject. Nothing is known about the investigation. People don’t know much about what they are doing to the planet.
- In addition to. Examples: About crying, he also knows how to laugh. About speaking, he also knows how to listen. About being calm, he also has his angry moments.
- To indicate approximation in a quantity or a number. Examples: Mateo has over 500,000 pesos to buy literature of the 15th century . Some of his features are present in chivalric books. I think it will come around three in the afternoon. They went to the party about 30 000 people.
- With dominance and superiority. Examples: About Veronica, Camila knows more. On the older brother, the younger is more judicious. About him, she is more athletic.
- In pledge of something. Examples: About the house I need you to lend me money. On the farm lend me the car. On this ring I need 300,000 pesos.
- After, then applied to space or time. Examples: After the bad times, better ones will come. After the storm comes calm. After the applause he lost his mind.
- Behind, in later situation. Examples: Behind him was she smiling. Behind the kitchen door is the patio. Behind the bars are the plants.
- Out of this, too. Examples: After not listening, ask. After being late, he gets angry. After eating a lot, you don’t get fat.
- In search or monitoring of. Examples: He left after peace. She leaves after love. Juan comes after solving the problem.
- Against, against. Examples: Barcelona will play versus Real Madrid. The match will be Red versus Green. It is a war of the west versus the east.
- By, passing by, or stopping by. Examples: He came to Colombia via Central America. The presentation heard it via videoconference. He arrived at the farm via the landslide.