Varieties of language in linguistics on different levels


Languages ​​are not uniform, but rather have distinct varieties, such as historical, geographic, social, and registration varieties. All the languages ​​of the world share a series of common characteristics that allow the different linguistic families to be established. Varieties of language in linguistics
The norm is the set of uses that the community values ​​as a model of linguistic behavior or of speaking well. When the language conforms to this norm, it is called a standard language.
Varieties of language, varieties in the oral performances that the speakers of their language materialize. The act of communication is carried out in very diverse situations and with differentiated communicative intentions and by a large number of speakers, who form a very heterogeneous group, with very different cultural and social varieties.
The speakers communicate using the same linguistic code because, although there are differences, are more numerous common features that make it up and also constitute what is called the standard language, which coincides with model in general with the written language and also with the educated language, an ideal model of language that speakers should reach, because language, in addition to being a vehicle of communication, is a trait of culture. With linguistic varieties, languages ​​are enriched; Thus, four varieties can be distinguished: social or diastratic, geographical or diatopic, historical or diachronic, and situational or diaphasic.

Social or diastratic varieties

They are the varieties of language related to the distribution and stratification of the speakers, differences of expression observed in the individuals belonging to the different social classes. The command of the language is different in individuals according to the level of education they have received; Thus, four levels of use can be distinguished, taking into account the sociocultural differences of the speakers: educated level, intermediate level, informal or colloquial level and vulgar level.

1-Cultural level

The educated level uses the language to the fullest extent of its possibilities, taking care of it in all its planes. It is characterized by an elaborate and careful form of expression, selection of linguistic signs, syntactic correction, and lexical property, in accordance with the educated norm. Look for originality and rigor in expression.

2-Medium level

The intermediate level follows the linguistic norm of the language, although it is less meticulous than the cult. Its most frequent use is in social communication media. The language used is common to the vast majority of speakers who belong to a medium sociocultural level.

3-Informal or colloquial level

The informal or colloquial level is the one used by speakers, regardless of their cultural level, as a way of habitual expression and relaxed use when talking with family and friends. The characteristic features of the informal language are the subjectivity of the speaker, the economy of linguistic means (use of wildcard words: thing, this, then …; plurisignificant verbs like do, have …; use of questions and exclamations of the type What are you saying? Do you know what I’m saying? Come on! If it’s here; use of ready-made and proverbial phrases such as This is life; Bird in hand is better … Throw the stone and hide the hand; use of a figurative language such as I am devastated; and appeal to the listener: And what do you think? Varieties of language in linguistics

4-Vulgar level

The vulgar level is the one used by speakers who have not received sufficient education, so their knowledge of the linguistic norm is very poor. The peculiar feature of this level is the alteration of the norms of the language and the use of linguistic peculiarities that are known as vulgarisms.c Ignorance of the norm gives rise to the various errors that we call vulgarisms, whose use has to do, Therefore, with the low cultural level of the speakers. This type of incorrectness affects pronunciation (* agüelo, * amoto), morphology (* andé), syntax (* I said that) and vocabulary (* The wound has been infested).

Metathesis or change of position of the phonemes: Grabiel for Gabriel, probe for poor. Permutation of the phonemes / b / and / g /: agüelo for grandfather, abuja for needle. Development of a ‘g’ before the diphthong ‘ue’: güevo, güeso. Vowel alterations due to confusion of prefixes: wake up and continue to wake up and according to. Relaxation of the phonemes / d /, / g / and / r /: aúja by needle, pa by para, piece by piece. Ultracorrection: cod for cod. Alteration of / l / and / r /: rent … Morphologically, the most frequent incorrect uses are:

Gender change: the wire, which, the rheumatics by the wire, which, the rheumatics. Incorrect pronominal forms: sit for sit. Verbal alterations: you sang, I drove, putting … Alteration in the order of personal pronouns me, te, se: you left, you saw me, you left, you saw me.
The most frequent misuses on the syntactic plane are:

Laism and Loism: I looked at her hands; I gave him a slap (You must use him, for both sentences, since it is an indirect object). Incorrect matches, have with impersonal value: There were many people (there were many people). Disagreement: the discussion is given as safe (safe). In the semantic lexical plane the most frequent errors of the vulgar level are:

Use of archaic verb forms: semos, truje por somos, traje. Particles or forms of archaic uses: enantes, quantimás. Inappropriate uses of prepositions: thinking that (thinking that); this phenomenon (called dequeism) is frequent even in colloquial use. Use of foul language, which, although not incorrect, is considered lexical vulgarism.  Varieties of language in linguistics

Geographic or Diatopic Varieties

The language presents multiple diatopic, geographical or dialectic varieties; are those that relate the speaker to their territorial origin. Traditionally they have been called dialects, because this term refers to the variety that a language adopts in a certain area of ​​its spatial domain. The so-called regional languages, dialects and local languages ​​are geographical varieties.
Dialect is a system of signs, detached from a common language, living or missing; normally, with a specific geographical limitation, but without a strong differentiation from another of common origin. Local linguistic peculiarities are not limited to overlapping of different speech, but are the result of a special linguistic situation, determined by a multitude of social facts. The study of urban speech shows that at the same time that some disappear within the leveling, new ones appear produced by the complexity of life in large centers .

Historical or Diachronic Varieties

They are the varieties that the language presents throughout history, its evolution, a study that corresponds to the historical or diachronic grammar, such as the use and origin of voseo.

Varieties of situation or Diaphasic

They are the varieties that the language presents according to the selection of the modality of expression that is chosen, depending on the communicative situation, the intention of the sender or the nature of the receiver; for example: a girl talks about her love relationships differently, depending on whether the interlocutor is her mother or a friend. Likewise, the form of expression used by the speaker in a topic of intranscendent or topical communication is different, such as, for example, an exchange of impressions about time; than on a more important or transcendent issue, such as asking someone how they are doing at work or giving their opinion about life beyond .
Different social groups have linguistic habits. Differentiated according to modes, behaviors and social uses, and also according to the jobs or professions they perform, they use special languages ​​that constitute their differentiated codes, with their own lexical forms, which are called professional languages ​​or jargons .  Varieties of language in linguistics

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