Sociolinguistics

Similarities between language and dialect in detail

Language

The term language comes from the Latin language and this in turn from Greek. It is a system of oral or graphic verbal communication and even gestures typical of a human community. Languages ​​are subdivided into dialects, the criteria for dividing a language into dialects are currently not considered objective or safe, in general, to determine if two dialects are part of the same language, sociopolitical and not linguistic is used. The number of current languages ​​is between 6,000 and 6,500. According to a study carried out in 2009, there are 6,909 languages ​​in the world. There is no criterion to determine the number of languages ​​in the world as there are no criteria that allow differentiating two languages ​​in different languages ​​or if it is the same language represented by two dialects. In addition, there are unstudied areas on the planet, there are uncontacted tribes with their languages ​​and dialects. Also some extinct languages ​​have re-emerged. Similarities between language and dialect

Dialect

For linguistics, dialect is one of the variables of a language or language. This term is usually used to refer to the geographical variants of a language associated with a certain area. A dialect is a system of signs from a common language or language, whether it is alive or missing, that is geographically delimited. It does not present a specific differentiation from dialects of a common origin. A dialect can be divided into sub-dialects. Differentiating or delimiting a dialect is a very delicate process in linguistics, as it requires characterizing the language of a territory, determining its historical precision and performing sociolinguistic analyzes on the speakers. Historically the word dialect has been used to communities with a pejorative value in such a way that a certain language is disqualified in favor of others considered official.

Key Similarities between Language and Dialect

1. The origin

 Both the language and the dialect come from another language from which they have been detached over time: Castilian, Asturian, Galician, Aragonese, Catalan, French …, they all come from Latin … Latin itself comes from Indo-European, in turn.

2. The
intercom:
communicability

 The two ( language and dialect ) form a linguistic system that serves for the mutual understanding of their respective speakers: the speakers of a language understand each other as well as those of a dialect each other (those of Madrid between them, as the shepherds from Los Picos de Europa among them)

3. The
linguistic system : phonic,
grammatical, lexical …

 Both ( language and dialect ) have the same fundamental levels of a language: sounds, phonemes, lexemes, morphemes, syntax, meanings, prepositions, conjunction and s …; with them they can express both their thoughts, names of things, toponymy …

4. Writing
(graphic criteria)

 Both can be oral and / or written: there are languages ​​that are not written (Indian, Amerindian, Chinese …); and dialects (historical or not) that were written more or less since the Middle Ages (Asturian, Aragonese …)

5. The number of
speakers (
demographic criteria )

 The two can have big differences in the number of speakers: there are languages ​​with very few speakers (Irish, about 60,000); and dialects (historical or not) with many speakers (Asturian, more than 1,000,000, although with so much Castilianization and variants).

6. Normalization,
variants
dialectal, the
varying local

 The two ( language and dialect ) can have very notable differences between the standard norm (or the most generalized one) and their respective internal favorites and local varieties: there can be as much variety between an Andalusian and a Valladolid, as between a Cavalier and a Chirosan , an ovetense, a mierese, or one from Taramundi.

7. Literary creation

Both ( language and dialect ) have their own literary creations, although in one case they are mostly oral: for many centuries, millennia, all the languages ​​of the world were purely oral (from the Neolithic, Indo-European times, the Middle Ages …) ; and not for that reason they stopped being considered languages ​​in their respective territories

8. Political assessment

 The two (language and dialect) function as linguistic communication systems, so that they should not be subject to the opinions of politicians and economic interests at all …

9. Social valuation

 Both ( language and dialect ) have prestige, when they are spoken in their respective communities: no one would be ashamed of their language, if others from outside did not despise it … (Spanish is not very well seen either in many international environments; for something it is not the language of European congresses)

Similarities between language and dialect

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