The linguistic variety refers to the diversity of uses of the same language according to the communicative, geographical or historical situation in which it is used and according to the level of linguistic knowledge of the user. Thus, depending on the variable involved, four types of varieties are distinguished: functional or diaphasic varieties ( language registers ), sociocultural or diastratic varieties ( language levels ), geographic or diatopic varieties ( dialects) ) and historical or diachronic varieties . Varieties of English in linguistics
From the second half of the twentieth century, studies on the linguistic variety are highlighted in the disciplines that, such as sociolinguistics and discourse analysis , include external factors that explain its use in the description of the language. These disciplines establish relationships between internal phenomena to the system (pronunciation, lexicology, morphosyntax issues) and determining social and situational phenomena for their description: for example, the low lexical density of the colloquial variety of the language opposes the richness and precision of the Vocabulary of the formal written variety. For its part, the comparative and historical linguistics of the nineteenth centuryHe had already opened a very fruitful path in the study of historical and geographical varieties.
In the works on linguistic variation the term standard variety is used to designate what is common and neutral in a language, that is, the “general language” not marked by individual or contextual factors. However, as announced above, not all speakers use the language in the same way: they do not pronounce the same phoneme the same, they do not use the same units to construct a specific syntactic structure, they choose different signifiers to convey the same meaning, they do not follow the same processes of speech production, etc. These differences are determined by the particular characteristics of the speaker – their place of birth, cultural formation, age, profession, etc. – and by the characteristics of the communication context.—Relationship with the interlocutor, purpose of the message, communication channel, time, etc.—. Depending on these circumstances, four types of linguistic varieties are distinguished: Varieties of English in linguistics
1-Functional or diaphasic varieties
(the records) are the linguistic modalities chosen determined by the communication situation. According to the means used (oral or written), the subject addressed (current or specialty), according to the relationship between the interlocutors (solidarity or hierarchy) and the function pursued, distinguishes between various registers: colloquial, formal registration , familiar, specialized, elaborate, spontaneous , etc .; specialized registries have also been called technolects. Among the functional or diaphasic varieties are also jargon (variety used within a given profession) and argots(characteristic variety of a particular social group: juvenile jargon , slang hampa , etc.).
2-Sociocultural or diastratic varieties Varieties of English in linguistics
( linguistic levels ) are the different ways of using a language according to the level of instruction of the speaker and their esteem towards the language. These varieties of the language are also called sociolects . Depending on the degree of mastery that a speaker possesses of the linguistic code and the discourse, three levels of language are distinguished: the high level or cult (social variety characterized by the use of diverse and elaborate linguistic resources), the middle level ( variety with a medium degree of knowledge of the language) and low or vulgar level(social variety defined by the poor command of the language). Among the variety diastratic and diafásica is given a certain relationship, because this is conditioned by that: a speaker who has a level cult of language is one that is able to use the most appropriate record for each communication situation; on the other hand, a speaker with a vulgar level always uses the same language – the only one who knows – the language, regardless of the conditions of communication. The use of vulgarisms reveals the low degree of linguistic instruction of a speaker: for example, the use of badly formed words ( [amoto]) or of agramatical statements reveal ignorance of the language system. Varieties of English in linguistics
3-Geographical or diatopic varieties
( dialects ) are the linguistic uses that are used in a given territory. In Spanish, the southern dialects (Andalusian, Extremaduran, Murcia, Canary, Spanish of America) present linguistic features differentiated from the northern regional varieties: for example, the intonational curve, the seseo and the aspiration of the h and the s , or the use of a lexicon typical of each geographical area.
4-Historical or diachronic varieties
constitute realizations of the language that characterize a certain stage of its history.
Varieties of English Varieties of English in linguistics
With the indisputable relevance of the English language, it cannot be surprising that there are varieties of this language known and spoken throughout the world.
It is possible that there are varieties even within the same nation, but despite the differences in geographical dimensions, number of inhabitants, etc., the core of the English language called “The Common Core of English.”
The linguistic differences are diverse, however in general we want to highlight the most important ones that can be presented: Varieties of English in linguistics
- Differences in Phonetics, that is, related to intonation, pronunciation and rhythm).
- Differences in writing: related to semantics and morphology.
- Differences in idiomatic expressions: particularities in the vocabulary that distinguish the lexicon.
For the National Standard English there are formally two varieties of English that are: American English and British English which have their own distinctive features that differentiate them from each other. Differences due to the historical and political events produced in Spain from 1940 to 1980.
1-American English Varieties of English in linguistics
this originates as a result of the influence of the languages of emigrants who arrived in Europe in the 19th century, Italian and German citizens whose struggles had failed for the 40s, Irish displaced by the great famine fleeing from this humanitarian crisis and immigrate Central European Jews escaping the terrible persecutions in the 80s. Varieties of English in linguistics
In the United States we have the following linguistic varieties:
- North Midland,
- South midland
- Eastern New England, and
- Inland Northern
the linguistic varieties of British English are noticeably more complex and unequal to each other, for example the Cornwell linguistic variety is confusing and complicated for Newcastle speakers (to the northeast)
In the United Kingdom we have the following linguistic varieties:
The Hiberno-Irish and Irish English variety which are spoken in the Republic of Ireland.
The Hiberno-Irish variety: a variety spoken by the Celtic Gaelic mother tongue.
Irish English variety: variety used by speakers whose mother tongue is English (To the west coast Ireland) It extends to Liverpool, Merseyside and Australia. This variety exerts great influence on English spoken in England, but also in Newfoundland, and the Barbados Islands
Scottish variety in this variety articulates the “r” Scottish accent of its speakers and the common words of the Scottish variety. Varieties of English in linguistics
It also highlights the English that speaks the black community “Black English” especially in Detroit, Cleveland, Chicago, New York. This variety brought many words that are currently used by young Slang-type people and that are frequently heard in the songs of the rap music genre.