Paralinguistic and extralinguistic elements
Non-verbal extralinguistic communication:
Humans use different languages to communicate and express clearly what we should say, many times we do not use nonverbal language to send messages such as gestures, posture, tone or voice volume.
In communication there are three elements:
1. Kinesia: It refers to the gestures and movements of our body to communicate. Within them is body posture, gestures, facial expression, look and smile.
a) Body posture
* Closed posture: There is remoteness and little acceptance of others.
b) Gestures: they are movements of the face and hands by which we wait, are qualified in:
Innate: Those of us who possess all human beings, that is, the joy or sadness
Acquired: They are those we learn by imitating the gestures of other people.
c) Expression of emotional states: Are those gestures that present feelings at a given time is to say sadness, joy, pain
d) Facial expression: the body expression balances the instruction of other people whoever receives the message, the best known are : Joy, sadness, disgust, anger, fear and interest.
e) Onomatopoeic expressions:
f) Tone: It is the emotional reflection of people when speaking
g) Volume: Determines the time of interaction to be established
h) Rhythm: It is the verbal fluency with which a person is expressed
Other paralinguistic elements are:
silence, the noise of air, water, the voices of different characters, music, among others.
Communication has a number of elements involved and they are not just verbal elements. The nonverbal component, together with the verbal component, constitutes communication, and includes:
What we say, that is, words.
The way we say, that is, the language.
The way we move, that is, the kinesic.
More than 90% of the communication is done through non-verbal elements, since we communicate 7% through the verbal channel, 38% through the paralinguistic channel and 55% through the kinesic.
They are a set of nonverbal signs that accompany linguistic communication and that complement communication, especially interpersonal communication, such as facial gestures and body gestures. They are systems of signs that, although they do not identify with language, are close to it, which they support, complement or replace in the processes of communication and are considered the main vehicle for emotional communication. When human beings communicate they intervene a series of gestures or bodily attitudes that emit messages, many times they emphasize what we are saying, they completely replace the words or in other cases they deny our verbal message and this is what we call paralinguistic code.
It is an organized set of signs which maintain functional autonomia with respect to language, although it is used in combination with linguistic signs. Its characteristic is functional autonomy with respect to language and the lack of direct realizations of replacement or auxiliary recording as with it. Many linguistic codes are used in combination with linguistic signs and can be significant for both the speaker and the listener or only for one of them.
Sign system typical of natural languages. When the man communicates using a code; that is, a set of elements that are combined following certain rules to publicize something. Human societies are characterized mainly because, using significant sound units, they manage to communicate through the most complete code: human languages or linguistic codes. The linguistic code is the set of units of all languages that combine according to certain rules and allows the elaboration of messages. Although all the other elements of the communication circuit work properly, the communication will not succeed if the sender and receiver do not share the same code.
As for expressiveness, this code: It is more effusive or expressive than the written one, it is usually accompanied by non-paralinguistic elements that complement the message, such as: mime, intonation, gestures or body movements. In reference to the correction the oral linguistic code is not as rigid as regards the normative rules. It is not selected to information with rigor, information can be repeated, it is returned to an earlier point, the subject is suddenly changed etc …
Permanence in time: It is of a fleeting nature what is said disappears once said. You can only register in memory or through recordings. Extra-linguistic codes can complement communication.
Written Linguistic Code.
Some expressiveness can be achieved by playing with the typeface, size and other graphic signs, such as: Question marks, exclamation points, ellipses etc …
Communication is achieved with transmission through a physical medium that is usually printed paper : the message requires a more careful elaboration to achieve a coherent message, communication cannot be intervened since sender and receiver can be distant both in time and space.