WHAT IS LINGUISTICS?
The concept of linguistics (term derived from the French word linguistique ) names what belongs or is related to language . This word also allows mentioning the science that has language as an object of study.
In this regard, it should be stressed that there are currently approximately 6,000 languages in the world. However, when it comes to studying them, Linguistics is based on a classification of those that are carried out based on the common origin that they may have. That is, they are ordered according to the family.
Thus, based on this explanation, we can find the Indo-European, Sinotibetan, Afro-Asian, Japanese, Korean, Uracic or Indo-Pacific languages, among others.
In this way, linguistics as a science focuses on nature and the guidelines that govern language . Unlike philology , a discipline that deepens the historical evolution of languages in writings and in the context of literature and associated culture, linguistics allows you to discover the functioning of a language at a given time, to understand its general development .
The modern linguistics arises from the nineteenth century . With the posthumous publication of “General Linguistics Course” ( 1916 ), by Ferdinand de Saussure , linguistics has become a science integrated into semiology . Since then, there is a need to make a difference between language (understood as the whole system) and speech (that is, its implementation), as well as to review the definition of linguistic sign (resource where the meaning is grouped and the signifier).
In the twentieth century , Noam Chomsky develops the flow of generativism , which understands language as a consequence of the mental processing of the speaker and in the genetic (or innate, in other words) ability to incorporate and make use of a particular language.
And all this leads to the fact that the figure of linguist Simon Dik, who is of Dutch origin and who stands out because he is part of another current within this field that concerns us, cannot be forgotten. Specifically, we are referring to the functionalist school that can be defined as that branch that establishes that language cannot be studied and analyzed independently, but must also take into account what is the use that is given the same.
This brings with it that within the functionalist school, in which Dik is one of his greatest figures thanks to his ideas and works such as the titled Functional Grammar, great value is given to issues or elements such as linguistic variation or Pragmatics Field the latter that is dedicated to study how the context in which the individual is influences the way of interpreting the meaning in question of language.
The study of language as a system can be carried out at different levels: the phonetic-phonological (phonology and phonetics), the morphological (morphology), the syntactic (syntax), the lexicon (lexicology and lexicography) and the semantic (semantics) .
From the point of view of speech, on the other hand, the text can be considered as the superior unit of communication and the pragmatic , which focuses on both the enunciation and the enunciation.