Language and Linguistics

Linguistics as a science with Internal structure of linguistics

Linguistics as Science

Linguistics is the science that studies human verbal language . Like all science, it is based on observations conducted through methods, based on a theory. A linguist’s job is to discover how a language works by studying several of these languages ​​empirically (through experience-based data), giving preference to popular variations spoken in different communities. The criteria for collecting, organizing, selecting and analyzing linguistic data obey a linguistic theory expressly formulated for this purpose.

Linguistics as a separate science

The word “linguistics” can be translated as “the knowledge of languages”. At the root of the Latin word is lingua, that is, language. This similar-sounding term is found in many other languages. For example, English (Linguistics), Russian (Лингвистика ), French (Linguistique) and mean the same thing.

Linguistics is the science of language in general as the main means of communication between people. The task of a linguist is not only to language, but, most importantly, to explain the principles of its structure, to reveal how its characteristics – pronunciation, grammar, alphabet – affect the people and society that speak it.

In linguistics, several research methods are used:

Internal structure of linguistics

Linguistics is a complex science. It includes several areas. We present the most common classification of linguistics:

  • theoretical;
  • Applied;
  • Practice.

1-theoretical linguistics

This area involves identifying and studying the patterns that characterize the language. For example, by observation or statistics, the linguist discovers that in the Russian language , in the word “договор” (agreement), the accent must be placed on the third vowel “o”. Based on this simple pattern, the linguist formulates a rule: in the plural, “договоры” (agreements) should be written, because changing the accent to the last vowel of the word “договора” may violate the laws of the language.

2-applied linguistics

The specificity of applied linguistics is the adaptation of theoretical concepts to reality. For example, in Iceland, the language policy is extremely conservative: to use new names in everyday life, they must be approved by a special commission. Also in Iceland there are special institutions that find the closest correspondences to foreign terms in the Icelandic language, so that in everyday speech the inhabitants of the country use precisely the words of national origin.

3-practical linguistics

This type of linguistics tests the “compatibility” of theoretical concepts and hypotheses with social reality through experiments. Therefore, their “compatibility” is proved or denied. For example, Russian linguists recently discovered that the word “кофе” (coffee) can be used not only in the masculine, but also in the neuter gender. Various experts explain this fact as follows: the modern designation of the drink was lost for the noun “кофие” of a neuter gender. The new standard is seen as a reference to the historical past.

Another popular basis for the classification of linguistics involves its division into general and specific.

4-general linguistics

This area does not study a particular language, but a group of them. A scientist’s task is to find common patterns in different dialects, and explain them. For example, in the course of research, it was revealed that in most languages ​​there are pronouns, subjects, predicates, singular and plural.

5-private linguistics

Study specific languages ​​that come together in related groups: Roman, Slavic, Germanic, etc.

Many people still think of modern linguists as textbook authors, or polyglots and translators. However, this is not the case at all. Modern linguistics is increasingly expanding the boundaries of its interests, merging with other sciences, penetrating almost all spheres of our life, if only because the goal of its study is everywhere.

Consider the directions of modern linguistics

6- Cognitive linguistics

Cognitive linguistics, and deals with the study of the relationship between language and human consciousness.

7- Computational Linguistics

Computational linguistics deals with the automatic analysis of natural language. In a nutshell, “ok Google” being able to read Facebook news feeds out loud, or the mobile feature that completes words before they finish typing them, are all fruits of the labor of computational linguistics.

8- Sociolinguistics 

Sociolinguistics studies the relationship between language and society.

Therefore, linguistics is an important and rapidly developing science, which not only reveals the patterns of language development, but also makes our stay in a computer environment more comfortable.

Why Linguistics is a science?

Linguistics might be understood as a science,

in each normal and particular time period. Usually, we use the time period ‘science’ for any information. that’s based mostly on clear systematic and rational understanding. Thus we regularly converse of the ‘science of politics’ or statecraft, or “the science of cooking’. Nonetheless, we additionally use the time period science for the systematic examine of phenomena, enabling us to state some ideas or theories concerning the phenomena. This examine proceeds by examination of publicly verifiable information obtained by means of remark of phenomena, and experimentation; in different phrases, it’s empirical and goal. Science should additionally present rationalization after enough remark of knowledge, which ought to be constant, i.e. there ought to be no contradiction between totally different i.e. elements of the reason or assertion; and economical, i.e. a exact and non- -redundant assertion is to be most well-liked.

Linguistics is the science

of language and linguist is the scientist who apply the scientific methodology to questions concerning the operate and nature of language. Linguistics additionally conduct formal research of phrases, speech, sounds, language and alter inside language households and the way language is acquired once we are infants. Linguistics additionally examines the connection, between written and spoken language as properly as the construction that allows us to make use of language.

Once more like a scientist

a linguist develops speculation makes a generalized assertion and take a look at them in opposition to the very fact of language. When a linguist makes a assertion about language he makes it on the idea of on observations. First he observes linguist occasion, then he finds some similarities and distinction on the idea of this generalization. On the idea of those generalization speculation are formulated account for the occasion.

Then linguist

additionally hopes to be in position to make prediction about unobserved information on the idea of this noticed information, and construct a normal principle which might clarify and relate all info that to be present in particular person language. Prediction about grammars and dictionary might be made by him. And eventually like a true scientist he engaged in discovering extra about language. By this methodology of investigations he additionally discover out some higher theories in linguistic.

Lastly the closeness of linguistics

with different pure sciences like, mathematics, physics, physiology, biology, zoology, and many others. Linguistic touches physics by means of acoustics, and physiology by means of the construction of the human vocal and zoology by means of the comparative examine of the techniques of dwelling beings.

Thus, linguistics is each an empirical science and a social science. The truth is, it’s a human self-discipline since it’s involved with human language; so it’s a part of the examine of humanities as properly. This contains the examine of literature, and appreciation of the sweetness and music of poetry. In understanding language, humankind can perceive itself. Furthermore, since each department of information makes use of language, linguistics is central to all areas of information. The normal distinctions of science, artwork and humanities usually are not related for linguistics. As Lyons places it, linguistics has pure hyperlinks with a big selection of educational disciplines. To say that linguistics is a science is to not deny that, by advantage of its subject material, it’s intently associated to such eminently human disciplines as philosophy and literary criticism (Lyons, 1981, p. 45).

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