What is Physiology Difference and Similarities with anatomy


Physiology is the part of biology responsible for understanding how the body works and analyzing the various physical and chemical processes that take place in it. As we know, the body of living beings has several Each type of memory has its own operation, although all of them cooperate to carry out a complete memorization process. This is complex processes that ensure its proper functioning, being a completely perfect machine. Studying these processes is fundamental, for example, to promote the health of the population, prevent diseases and allow for a better quality of life.

It is worth mentioning that, although when we talk about physiology we usually remember animal and human physiology, plant physiology is also important. As the name suggests, it is responsible for understanding all the processes that occur inside the body of plants.

Brief history

It is an area that began to be studied in Greece 2500 years ago The name of this science comes from the Greek words physis and logos , which can be translated as “knowledge of nature”.

During the development of physiology and the deepening of the functioning of the body, several important names emerged. One of these was Claudius Galen (AD 129-200), a great Roman physician known for treating gladiators. According to Galen, the human body is made up of four different fluids ( “four humors” ), and the three main organs are the liver , heart and brain . For his studies, Galen performed dissections on animals.

In addition to Galen, other figures stood out in the study of the living organism, as is the case of Andreas Versalius (1514-1564). This physician created the work De humani corporis fabrica (1543), in which he addressed human anatomy and physiology in a highly illustrated manner. At that time, the practice of dissecting human corpses was already released, which allowed important advances in the medical field.

One of the greatest contributions to physiology was given in 1628, with the publication of the work Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus , by William Harvey (1578-1657). In that book, it was understood for the first time that the body does not continuously produce blood , as previously believed.

According to Harvey, blood circulates through our body thanks to the functioning of the heart , which has muscle contractions capable of boosting blood tissue. Based on this, a new way of seeing the human body emerged and physiology became the science we know today.

From the 19th century, several changes took place, and technological improvement allowed important discoveries , such as the development of cell theory and the understanding of capillary permeability. During this period, the concept of homeostasis was proposed and became fundamental to physiology. In the 20th century, other important discoveries were made, such as understanding the structure of DNA and understanding the feedback mechanism .

Currently, physiology is a mandatory study of social classes stands out. This topic involves many aspects and can be understood from different angles; therefore, it is the subject in courses in the health area , such as medicine, biology, biomedicine, pharmacy, nutrition, among others. The obligation occurs because, without understanding this area, it is impossible to carry out any activity that involves life.

Fields of Physiology

It is a huge field of knowledge, studying all parts of a person’s body. From how the skin works to the brain. It encompasses everything related to survival. Which means that there are diverse areas of research in human physiology. Such as:

  • Cardiovascular Physiology (studies the functioning of the heart and surroundings)
  • Endocrine Physiology (studies the functioning of the glands and the action of hormones)
  • Respiratory Physiology (studies the functioning of the respiratory organs and oxygenation)
  • Renal Physiology (studies the functioning of the kidney and the filtration of metabolites from the body)
  • Gastrointestinal Physiology (studies the functionality and absorption of digestion)
  • Physiology of the Nervous System (studies sending and receiving information in the organs of the nervous system).

Topics worked on human and animal physiology

When we study it, we understand various processes that occur in our body. Some of the topics covered in this area are:

  • Digestion
  • Breathing
  • Blood circulation
  • Blood clotting
  • urine formation
  • Immunity
  • hormonal activity
  • Muscular contraction
  • Menstrual cycle regulation

What does anatomy mean

Anatomy is the science that studies the design of living beings, as well as their structure and function. It can be classified into two main branches: descriptive anatomy, which describes the shape and position of body parts; and histology , which describes its microscopic tissues. Anatomy also involves understanding the body’s systems, how individual organs function, and how they interact with each other to keep the organism alive. It is related to other medical disciplines such as physiology , embryology and forensic medicine to provide a complete picture of the “normal” human body.

Similarities between anatomy and physiology

Anatomy and physiology _They are related terms in the field of medicine. Both refer to the structures and functions of the human body, but in different ways. Anatomy primarily deals with the shape and structure of the human body, while physiology focuses on metabolic processes and the internal functioning of the organism. The two disciplines often work together to better understand the complex body systems common to man. For example, a surgeon will need to know both areas to understand enough about muscle tissue before performing surgery on that particular area. Likewise, a cardiologist will have to combine his basic knowledge of anatomy with his clinical skills to correctly diagnose cardiac problems.

Differences between anatomy and physiology

They are two related but different areas of knowledge. Anatomy focuses on the study of the form, structure and organization of the human body through external and internal examination. It focuses mainly on the mechanical systems of the body, such as bones and muscles. On the other hand, physiology is based on the internal functioning of the cells, tissues and organs that make up all body systems. It studies the interaction between structure and function to determine how our organisms regulate our physical well-being through chemically controlled processes. In summary, we can say that anatomy is a discipline in charge of studying the individual parts of the human body while physiology explores their integrative functioning to understand their correct common operation.

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