Phonetics

Speech production process difference with language production

Speech and Speech Production Process

In this article we will elaborate Speech production process. Speech production is the process by which thoughts are translated into speech . This includes selecting semantic unit of a text. In other words, arranging relevant grammatical forms, and then articulating the resulting sounds by the motor system using the vocal apparatus.

Similarly, one might ask: what are the four speech processes?

Speech , then, is produced by a stream of air leaving the lungs, passing through the trachea and the oral and nasal cavities. It involves four processes : Initiation, phonation, oronasal processing and articulation.

Likewise, what is the process of articulationArticulation Process . The articulation process is the modification of sound waves produced by the air current, phonation and oral-nasal processes .

In this regard, how is speech formed?

Speech is produced by taking air from the lungs into the larynx (breathing), where the vocal folds can be held open to allow air to pass through or they can vibrate to make a sound (phonation). The airflow from the lungs is then shaped by the mouth and nose articulators (joint).

How do speech organs work?

Speech organs , or articulators, produce the sounds of language. Organs used for speech include the lips, teeth, alveolar crest, hard palate, veil (soft palate), uvula, glottis, and various parts of the tongue. The glottis is not an active articulator because it is just a space between the vocal folds.

Speech is an extremely complex function that involves processes ranging from

it considers emotional, affective, volitional, and psychic aspects that regulate the production of speech such as speed, prosodic inflections, etc.), on the other hand, it considers basic psychological processes such as expressive and comprehensive oral language, thought, and intelligence.

2-Neurological

Either at the neuromotor level, they will allow swallowing, sucking, chewing functions (orofacial motor acts), as well as at the neurosensory level they will allow the integration of auditory processes.

3-Linguistic

which implies the presence of Phonological Simplification Processes (PSF) where substitution errors (eg Moon for dune), omission (eg Elephant for epant) are frequently evident

In this sense, speech cannot be equated to a motor act, nor can it attempt to be valued or treated with non-verbal activities such as feeding, homeostatic breathing or non-verbal orofacial movements (praxis), and laryngeal movements

Difference between language production and speech production:

The production of speech refers to the execution of the motor plan or sequence of movements of the muscular structures involved in the articulation of sounds, while the production of language implies the production of speech, plus the conceptualization and formulation phases.

The speech production process is virtually unobservable – and therefore the most difficult to describe. A large number of models are built on the basis of reservations and pauses in speech. N. Chomsky‘s transformational-generative grammar assumes that a person operates with certain rules that allow him to unfold a deep structure into a superficial one.

Explanation

Speech production is the process by which thoughts are translated into speech. This involves choosing words, organizing the appropriate grammatical forms, and then articulating the sounds received by the motor system using the vocal apparatus. Speech reproduction can be spontaneous, for example, when a person creates words of conversation, reactive, for example, when he calls a picture or reads a written word aloud, or imitation, for example, when repeating speech. Speech production is not the same as production language, since the language can also be reproduced manually using characters. In normal fluent conversation, people pronounce about four syllables, ten or twelve phonemes, and two or three words from their vocabulary (which can contain 10,000 to 100,000 words) every second. Mistakes in speech pronunciation are relatively rare, approximately once in every 900 words in spontaneous speech. Words that are usually spoken or memorized at an early age, or that are easy to imagine, are spoken faster than those that are rarely spoken, memorized at a later age, or are abstract. Typically, speech is created by pulmonary pressure created by the lungs, which generate sound by phoning through the glottis in the larynx, which is then converted by the vocal tract into various vowels and consonants. However, speech production can occur without the use of the lungs and glottis, in alaryngeal speech using the upper parts of the vocal tract. An example of such a laryngeal speech is the conversation of Donald Duck. Vocal reproduction of speech can be associated with the production of hand gestures that enhance the comprehensibility of what is being said –

Speech Production process

To pronounce speech sounds, you need:

1) a stream of air, the energy of which is needed to excite sound,

2) a sound vibrator,

3) resonators for the formation of speech timbres

A jet of air is supplied from the lungs through the airways. The main sound vibrator is the vocal cords of the larynx. In addition, a noisy sound can be generated by air friction when passing through a narrow gap between the lips, between the tongue and teeth, between the tongue and the hard palate, when the bridge between the same organs breaks. Resonators of speech sounds are the oral cavity and pharynx, that is, the extension tube. It is here that speech timbres are formed.

The air leaving the lungs under a certain pressure passes through a narrow slit of the vocal cords, vibrating under the influence of impulses traveling along the nerve from the brain, as a result of which sound is formed (its height depends on the frequency of vibrations of the vocal cords).

The sound generated by the vibration of the vocal cords is not loud enough and lacks speech timbres. It looks like a soft squeak or hum. Amplification of sound and the formation of speech timbres occurs in two resonators – oral and pharyngeal.

Analysis of the Process of Speech Production

The speech production process is classified into three fields:

  • Conceptualization
  • Formulation
  • Coding

The concept of conceptualization

It is the highest level, it implies determining what to say. During conceptualization, the people who speak conceive an intention and choose the relevant information from memory, or from the environment, to prepare the construction of the intended expression. The product of conceptualization is a preverbal message. Levelt differentiated the process of conceptualization from macro-planning and micro-planning.

Formulation processes

They involve translating the conceptual representation into linguistic form.

The formulation has two components:

Lexicalization:

in the production of speech, go from semantics to sound.

Syntactic planning:

put the words together to make the sentence

The encoding processes.

The phonological performance involves turning words into sounds in the correct order, the correct speed, and the proper prosody (intonation, pitch, volume, and rhythm). Sounds need to be produced in the correct sequence and how to move the muscles of the articulatory system is specified.

The techniques used in the study of production have been the following: Analysis of transcripts of how the subjects choose what and how to say, computer simulations, analysis of pauses and errors, and lingual lapses. In recent years, experimental imaging naming studies

Different Questions about speech and speech production process

 

What is the phonation process?

Phonation (voice) is the physical process by which sound is produced. Finally, the sound produced by the vocal folds is filtered by the vocal tract (language-producing muscles), forming the individual sounds that we use in speech. The sounds produced by the vibration of the vocal folds are called sonorous sounds.

What is the speaking process?

Speech production requires the collaborative operation of four processes: breathing, phonation, resonation and pronunciation. Sound waves only occur when the application of energy forces an object to vibrate. The process of producing sounds from semantic unit of a text. In other words is called pronunciation.

How do humans speak?

In general, the human voice generation mechanism can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the vocal folds inside the larynx (voice box) and the articulators. The vocal folds (vocal cords) then vibrate to use the airflow from the lungs to create audible pulses that form the sound source of the larynx.

How do you write a good speech?

Here are the tips: Choose your main ideas. Don’t try to put too many ideas into your speech. Write as you speak. Remember that you are writing a speech, not an essay. Use concrete semantic unit of a text. In other words and examples. Concrete details keep people interested. Gather your facts. Persuade with a classic structure. Simplify.

How do humans produce sound?

The human being produces sound through the voice box which is called the larynx. The voice box is situated in our throat, at the top of the windpipe. The human voice box contains two ligaments known as vocal cords. Sound is produced by the vibrations of the vocal cords.

What is speech engine and how does it work?

Speech mechanisms are based on physiological systems that develop in man as a result of object-directed activity and association with other people, and which are impossible without certain innate skills and abilities (e.g., proper coordination of articulation, syllable formation, and correction by breathing).

What are phonemes and examples?

A phoneme is a sound or a group of different sounds perceived as having the same function by speakers of the language or dialect in question. An example is the English phoneme /k/, which occurs in semantic unit of a text. In other words like cat, kit, scat, skit.

What is resonance in speech?

Deadline. Resonation. Definition. it is the process by which the voice, or laryngeal tone, is modified when some frequency components are dampened and others are intensified. Modification occurs through the pharynx, nasal cavity and oral cavity.

How many muscles are there in human speech?

Speech production is a highly complex motor task that involves approximately 100 orofacial, laryngeal, pharyngeal and respiratory muscles.

What is public speaking?

Public speaking is the process of communicating information to an audience. It is usually made for a large audience such as at school, in the workplace and even in our personal lives. The benefits of knowing how to communicate with an audience include sharpening critical thinking and verbal/non-verbal communication skills.

Is a letter a phoneme?

Every sound you hear in a word is a phoneme. It is the smallest unit of sound that makes up a complete word. This is not to be confused with the letter itself; Phonemes are just the sounds produced. It is important to understand that phonemes can be composed of more than one letter.

What are speech sounds?

speech sound 1: any of the smallest recognizable and recurrent constituents of spoken language, produced by the movement or movement and configuration of a variable number of speech organs in an act of communication addressed to the ear. 2: phone. 3: phoneme.

Is sound a noun?

substantive. the sensation produced by the stimulation of the organs of hearing by vibrations transmitted through the air or other medium.

What are the larynx?

The larynx, which includes the vocal cords, is another name for the voice box. It is a tube about 5 cm long in adults. It sits above the windpipe (windpipe) in the neck and in front of the food tube. The food tube at the top of the neck is called the pharynx.

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