Language and Linguistics

Linguistic resources types characteristics in detail

Linguistic resources

The linguistic resources are elements used by the writer to produce texts that are of interest to the reader. In general, these resources are usually associated with literature. However, it is a misconception, since they can be found in both oral and written manifestations. Linguistic resources types characteristics

Good texts do not depend only on the presence of reliable sentences, but also require the use of transitions, the organization of information, the existence of associations between ideas, and the use of figures that give variety to the text.

Language resources can be classified into three categories. In the first place, there are those that are used to give organization to the text. This category includes elements that create transitions, such as connectors.

There are also those that are used to emphasize the text, such as reiteration and asyndeton. Finally, there are those whose purpose is to give variety to the language, so that the text is attractive to the reader.

In this last group are the rhetorical figures such as metaphor, metonymy, alliteration, hyperbaton, hyperbole, among others.

Main types of language resources

Linguistic resources can be classified into five large groups: cohesive resources, emphatic resources, rhetorical, morphological and phonetic resources.

1-Cohesive linguistic resources

Cohesive elements are characterized by providing organization to the text. They establish relationships between ideas, so that the text is perceived as a unit and not as a set of isolated structures. Linguistic resources types characteristics

There are different types of cohesive language resources:

1-Connectors

Among the cohesive elements are the connectors, which are words that establish bridges between the sentences and the paragraphs that make up a text.

Connectors can indicate hierarchy, opposition, temporal relationships, among others. 

Examples

– Hierarchy: “First”, “first”, “second”, “on the one hand”, “on the other hand”.

– Opposition: “On the other hand”, “nevertheless”, “if well”, “now well”.

– To summarize: “In summary”, “as a whole”, “in sum”.

– Of time: “At the same time”, “next”, “later”, “before”.

2-References

References are another of the elements that are used to create cohesion. These can be of two types: anaphoric and cataphoric.

The anaphoric reference occurs when pronouns or other nouns are used that refer to an element that has been mentioned above.

3-Anaphoric reference example

“The song of the sirens pierced everything, the passion of the seduced would have blown up prisons stronger than masts and chains. Ulises did not think of that. The silence of the sirens , by Franz Kafka.

In the example shown, the word “that” refers to the song of the sirens that was previously discussed.

For its part, the cataphoric reference occurs when the reference precedes the element to which it refers.

4-Cataphoric reference example

“They were all gathered there: my brothers, my parents, and my uncles.”

In the example, the word “everyone” refers to “my brothers, my parents, and my uncles,” who are named after.

2-Emphatic linguistic resources

The emphatic elements are those that are used to highlight a part of the speech. There are several resources that allow you to create emphasis, among which adverbs, asyndeton and polysyndeton stand out. Linguistic resources types characteristics

1-Adverbs and adverbial phrases

By themselves, adverbs do not create emphasis. It is the position of these that gives the speech a special meaning.

It is usually necessary to interrupt the natural order of the sentence in order to create this effect. 

Examples

– Probably the girl did not arrive until three in the afternoon.

– The girl probably didn’t arrive until three in the afternoon.

In the first sentence there is no emphasis of any kind, while in the second it seeks to highlight the sense of uncertainty of the sentence.

– I didn’t know about this.

– I, of course, did not know anything about this.

The second sentence emphasizes the fact that the person was unaware of the situation.

2-Asyndeton

The asyndeton consists of the suppression of the copulative conjunction “and”. In some cases, the absence of this element generates a sense of synonymy that highlights the value of the phrase.

Example

– He was a winner and a hero.

– He was a winner, a hero.

In the second sentence, the elision of the “y” emphasizes the hero condition.

3-Polysyndeton

Polysyndeton is the opposite phenomenon to asyndeton. It consists of the repetition of a coordinating conjunction.

The polysyndeton has the effect of drawing the attention of the reader, in addition to giving a sense of persistence in the text.

Example

Klaus began to sob, not so much in pain as in anger at the dire situation they were in. Violet and Sunny cried with him, and they kept crying while they washed the dishes, and when they put out the candles in the dining room, and when they changed their clothes and went to sleep. ” A Bad Beginning , by Lemony Snicket.

3-Rhetorical linguistic resources

There are several figures of speech that are used to give variety to the text. Among these, the metaphor, the simile and the antithesis stand out.

1-Metaphor

Metaphor is the most common rhetorical element. Compare two different elements, between which there is a relationship of similarity that can be subjective, depending on the point of view of the speaker. Linguistic resources types characteristics

This is not only found in literary texts, but can be appreciated at any level of discourse. In fact, metaphors are used daily without noticing it.

Example

For example, calling the lower structures of a chair “legs” is a metaphor established in relation to the legs of animals.

2-Metonymy

Metonymy consists of assigning one element the name of another. Between these two elements there is a relationship of contiguity.

Example

“Give me the salt”. In this case, what the person is asking for is the salt shaker.

3-Simile

The simile is a comparison between two elements that are similar in certain aspects. It consists of a linguistic link which is usually the word “like”.

Example

“(…) from the gloomy space that opened above their heads came the unpleasant sensation of a kind of splashing or rhythmic swell, something like the noise of the waves on a beach with stagnant waters.” The Horror in Dunwich, by HP Lovecraft. Linguistic resources types characteristics

4-Antithesis

The antithesis establishes a relationship between two contrasting ideas.

Example

“A small step for man, a great step for humanity.” Neil Armstrong.

4-Morphological linguistic resources

They are those that are used to give importance to a part of the text by highlighting some quality or giving it a certain priority.

1-Enumeration

It is an accumulation of synonyms or similar nouns to describe something.

Example

“And all that despite being an ungrateful, disloyal, ungrateful and despicable person.”

2-Epithet

They are qualifying adjectives that serve to highlight some obvious quality.

Example
“The silent desert.”

5-Phonetic linguistic resources

Onomatopoeia, one of the phonetic linguistic resources

They are resources that, based on sound elements, allow to highlight or beautify some concept of the text.

1-Onomatopoeia

Word that mimics a natural sound.

Example

“The knock on the door woke me up.”

2-Paranomasia

It is a resource that consists of placing two words of similar sound closely.

Example

“Three sad tigers ate wheat in a wheat field.” Linguistic resources types characteristics

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