English Linguistics Terms/Glossary

English Phonetics and Phonology Glossary

English Phonetics and Phonology Glossary

  • 1. Accent. It is the sound of intensity. Within the same tone the sounds can be more or less intense. That is strong or weak. For example, / médiko /, / mediko /, / medikó /.
  • 2. Africada. Consonant sound that is characterized in that the air outlet develops a smooth transition from an occlusion to a friction of a particular point of the oral cavity: [c]. It is also called semi-occlusive.
  • 3. Agramaticality. Term used in Linguistics to designate the characteristic of the sequences of words or morphemes that do not conform to the rules of grammar . Agramaticality occurs when the logic of words is altered .
  • 4. Allophone. Each of the variants that occur in the pronunciation of the same phoneme, according to its position in the word or syllable, according to the character of neighboring phonemes, etc .; p. For example, the occlusive b of the tumbo and the fricative tube are allophones of the phoneme / b /.
  • 5. Allomorph. Each of the variants of a morpheme that has identical meaning; eg -s and –es are allomorphs of the plural morpheme in Spanish .
  • 6. Casting apparatus. Set of organs responsible for the origin of language , which is manifested by a series of sounds produced by the air exhaled by the lungs. The position that this set of organs adopts in the emission of a sound is called articulation. The sounding apparatus is divided into infraglottic, laryngeal and supraglottic cavities.
  • 7. Joint. term used in Phonetics to describe the position and movement of voice organs that produce the pronunciation of a vowel or consonant. In Linguistics , it becomes the phonological level of the language .
  • 8. Bilabial. Name that receives the phoneme produced by the closure or approach of the lips. [p, b, m].
  • 9. Head. It is the consonant or consonant group that precedes the top. It is part of the syllable.
  • 10. Simple head. It is simple when it is a consonant.
  • 11. Composite head. It is composed when it has two consonants.
  • 12. Coda. It is the consonant or consonants that follow the top. It is part of the syllable.
  • 13. Simple coda. When it constitutes a single consonant.
  • 14. Composite coda. When two consonants make it up.
  • 15. Infraglottic cavity. Formed by the so-called breathing organs (diaphragm, lungs, bronchi and trachea).
  • 16. Laryngeal cavity. Formed by the so-called phonation organs (larynx, vocal cords and glottis).
  • 17. Supraglottic cavity. Formed by the so-called organs of the joint (pharynx, veil of the palate, tongue, lips, oral cavity and nasal cavity).
  • 18. Top. It is part of the syllable. Its nature is vowel; It includes the core vowel and sometimes two marginal vowels.
  • 19. Consonant. Sound in whose pronunciation the passage of exhaled air is interrupted at some point in the vocal channel, as in p, t, or a narrowness occurs that causes it to escape with frication, as in f, s, z.
  • 20. Contrast. Phonological difference between two adjacent units. Eg, fit and abdicate; the pt or bd sequences have contrast but there is no sequence between pd or tb There is also contrast between stressed and unstressed syllables; eg, transit, transit, transit .
  • 21. Vocal strings. They are part of the human larynx, they are two pairs called true and false. They are formed by elastic connective tissue covered by mucous membrane folds. Upon contact with the air, expelled from the lungs, they vibrate producing sound sounds; When the vibration of the vocal cords does not occur, the so-called deaf sounds are generated.
  • 22. True vocal cords. It extends from the epiglottis to the angle of the thyroid cartilage; These cords narrow the glottis (the pharyngeal opening of the larynx) during swallowing.
  • 23. False vocal cords. They are located below the false vocal cords and extend from the arytenoid cartilages to the angle of the thyroid. The vibration in this pair of strings causes air from the lungs determines the formation of sounds that amplify the resonant nature of the larynx.
  • 24. Phonetic differences. In the issuance of a vowel the articulatory organs do not oppose any obstacle to the exit of the air: [a]. in the emission of a consonant, the articulatory organs oppose some obstacle to the exit of the air: [p].
  • 25. Phonological differences. The vowels are themselves capable of constituting a syllable or a word: he went shopping and brought one or two marbles. However, consonants require the support of at least one vowel to function in a syllable or in a word: [be.bé]
  • 26. Diphthong. Set of two different vowels that are pronounced in a single syllable; p. eg, air, door, I went. Diphthongs are classified in increasing. Whose second vowel constitutes the syllabic nucleus. Decreasing. Whose first vowel constitutes the syllabic nucleus.
  • 27. Duration. It refers to the relative length or quantity that delays the pronunciation of a sound, be it vowel or consonant.
  • 28. Intonation. Melodic line characterized by tones when speaking.
  • 29. Pharynx. Widened portion of the digestive tract of many animals . Whose walls are generally muscular and are located next to the mouth. In man and in other mammals it has several openings, through which it communicates with the nostrils, with the Eustachian tube, with the larynx and with the esophagus.
  • 30. Phonemes. Each of the minimum phonological units that in the system of a language can oppose others in significant contrast; p. eg, the initial consonants of well and joy, kills and gowns; the interiors of cove and face; the pair and peace finals the vowels of tan and ten, salt and sun, etc. Different allophones fit inside each phoneme.
  • 31. Open phoneme. It is done without contact or any approximation between two articulation organs.
  • 32. Segmental phonemes. They are those that when taken to the concrete realization in the pronunciation are produced one after the other following the linearity of the linguistic sign. They are vocal and consonant sounds. Eg tree. / a / + / r / + / b / + / or / + / l / constitute the segmental phonemes.
  • 33. Suprasegmental phonemes. Are those irreducible to the analysis by segments. They are also known as prosodemas. In Spanish they are reduced to intonation and intensity accent
  • 34. Phonation. Constant adaptation function since the human organism is not exclusively trained to speak. Language is a learning and therefore phonation is dependent on hearing.
  • 35. Phonemic. Belonging or relating to the phoneme or the phonological system. Phonology discipline that studies phonemes.
  • 36. Phonetics. Discipline of linguistics that studies sounds from the articulatory point of view, that is, depending on the particularities and smaller perceivable articulatory differences. Its minimum unit is the phone.
  • 37. Phone. Minimum unit of phonetics, it is a real, physical, and audible sound. It is symbolized by square brackets []. For example, exhausted — [eksáusto].
  • 38. Phonology. Branch of linguistics that studies sounds in their distinctive or differentiating character using their articulatory characters. He is responsible for the study of phonemes and their distribution in the language system.
  • 39. Phonosyntax. Under the name of phonosyntax, the modifications that the phonemes undergo when grouped, with the words, within a sentence are studied.
  • 40. Fricative. This is called the consonant sound that is characterized by a narrowing of the passage of air that produces a friction or rubbing noise when passing through the small opening formed by the articulating organ and the point of articulation: [f], [x], [ s], [y], [z].
  • 41. Grapheme. Term used in linguistics to designate the minimum and indivisible unit of the writing of a language.
  • 42. Spelling. Also called letter, it is a symbol that pretends to represent the phonemes (functional sounds) of a language.
  • 43. Glottis. Anteroposterior direction opening located between the vocal cords and the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx. It is a membranous or interligamentous portion (located between the vocal cords) and an intercartilaginous portion (located between the arytenoids). The strings and gothic rhymes divide the laryngeal cavity into three parts, upper or vestibule, intermediate and lower.
  • 44. Accent group. Set of syllables grouped around a main accent. Eg, my friend eats [mjamigokóme]. Some cases are formed by a syllable. Eg, my friend eats and I don’t [mjamigokóme / ijo no].

Likewise, the accentual groups are metric units of a language and their distribution is due to several reasons, generally they are groups of several syllables with a number no greater than five.

  • 45. Phonic group. Segment of the speech limited by two pauses and can be formed by several accent groups. Whenever there is a pause there is a phonic group. Eg, waiter more beer [moso, masserbesa].
  • 46. ​​Vocal group. This is the name of the vowels that are contiguous in one word. E.g., biology .
  • 47. Speak. Materialization and individual use of a language.
  • 48. Hiatus. It is the encounter of two vowels that pronounce themselves in different syllables. In metric it comes to be the dissolution of a synalefa, by poetic license, to lengthen a verse. Chaos; chi.i.ta; ear
  • 49. Interdental. Name given to the phoneme produced when the tongue is between the teeth: [z].
  • 50. Intensity. Physical magnitude that expresses the greater or lesser amplitude of the sound waves . Its unit in the International System isphonium.
  • 51. Joint. According to Trager and Bloch, it is the transition from a pause to the first phonemic segment of an expression, or from the last phonemic segment to the next pause.
  • 52. Labiodental. Name given to the phoneme produced by the approach of the lower lip to the upper teeth: [f].
  • 53. Side. Consonant sound that occurs when the closing of the mouth is incomplete, the air output continues but it moves through the lips of the mouth: [l].
  • 54. Language An orderly and systematic set of oral, written and recorded forms that serve for communication between people who constitute a linguistic community .
  • 55. Language Means of  communication between human beings through oral and written signs that have meaning. In a broader sense, it is any procedure that serves to communicate.
  • 56. Lexía. Noun whose construction is not related to the other elements of the sentence, but its meaning gives the meaning of it. Eg honeymoon.
  • 57. Linguoalveolar. Name given to the phoneme produced by the approach of the tongue to the alveoli: [l, n, s, r].
  • 58. linguoavelar. Name given to the phoneme produced by the touch of the tongue on the veil of the palate: [k, g, x].
  • 59. Linguodental. Name given to the phoneme produced by touching the tongue to the upper incisors: [d, t].
  • 60. Linguopalatal. Name given to the phoneme produced by touching or approaching the tongue to the hard palate: [y, c, n, l].
  • 61. Linguistics. Science  that studies language. You can focus your attention on the sounds, words and syntax of a specific language, on the relationships between languages , or on the characteristics common to all of them. It can also address the psychological and sociological aspects of linguistic communication.
  • 62. Place of articulation. At the point of the area where the obstacle that opposes the exit of the air is located, on the lips as in [p]; on the palate as in [l].
  • 63. Syllabic margin. It is the possible limit that exists between a syllable and another that raises principles that we must take into account to be able to separate syllables between one and the next, considering the vowels or consonants of the borders or contours of the syllables. In Spanish, syllabic boundaries are theoretically possible: one syllable ends in a vowel and the other also begins in a vowel. Eg, [ba.úl]. A syllable ends in a consonant and the next one begins with another consonant. Eg, [ís.la]. One syllable ends in vowel and the other begins in consonant. Eg, [li.bro].
  • 64.  Joint matrix . It is used to take into account the characteristics or articulatory features to define a sound in such a way that a sound is characterized differently from the other because one has a feature and the other does not. The matrix allows a characterization and is defined with the positive sign when the sound has a trait and negative when it does not.
  • 65. Articulation mode. The way in which the air column overcomes the obstacles that oppose its exit is addressed. If the obstacle comes out once the obstacle disappears as in [p] if it slides through a narrowing formed by the articulatory organs, as in [s], if it emerges from the sides of the tongue as in [l].
  • 66. Nasals. Term used in Phonetics, in the mode of articulation. It is produced by the continuous exit of the air through the nasal cavity: [m], [n].
  • 67. Syllabic core. It consists of a vowel. For example, [ca.sa] the syllabic nucleus in [a].
  • 68. Occlusive. This is called the consonant sound whose most important phase of its formation is the occlusion or momentary closure of the air passage followed by a sharp opening, this is done with the lips, with each other or with the tip of the tongue against the palate hard or soft palate: [p], [t], [k], [b], [d], [g].
  • 69. Prayer In Grammar it is the word or set of words with which a complete grammatical sense is expressed.
  • 70. Articulatory organs. They are the organs that intervene in the production of the voice. Eg, lips, tongue, mouth, teeth, alveoli, palate.
  • 71. Resonating organs. Each of the cavities that occur in the vocal canal, by the arrangement adopted by the organs at the time of articulation. The predominant resonator determines the particular timbre of each sound. There are several resonators (buccal, nasal, labial), in this way there is a sequential process to articulate the sound.
  • 72. Oral. Term used in Phonetics, in the mode of articulation. There is an action of the palate veil that closes the entrance of the nostrils, then the passage of air occurs through the oral cavity.
  • 73.  Spelling . Word derived from the Greek ortho , correct, and graphé , writing, designates the part of the grammar that sets the correct use of letters and graphic signs in the writing of any language at a specific time .
  • 74. Word. Segment of the discourse usually unified by the accent, the meaning and potential initial and final pauses. Graphic representation of the spoken word.
  • 75. Conceptual words. It is said of nouns, qualifying adjectives, verbs. Which designate, qualify or refer actions of a being or thing.
  • 76. Functional words. It is said of adverbs and articles. Which modify the verbs and nouns respectively.
  • 77. Palate. Inner and upper part of the vertebrate animal’s mouth.
  • 78. Soft palate. Part of the palate located between the hard palate and the veil.
  • 79. Hard palate. Part of the palate that corresponds to the palatine bone.
  • 80. Minimum torque. It is the grouping of at least one vowel and one consonant and vice versa. Eg, [dad].
  • 81. Prosody. Part of the grammar that teaches the correct pronunciation and accentuation. Study of the phonic features that affect the metric, especially the accents and the quantity. Part of the phonology dedicated to the study of phonic features that affect units below the phoneme, such as blackberries, or above it, such as syllables or other sequences of the word or sentence.
  • 82.  Production of voice. The air contained in the lungs is propelled through the bronchi into the trachea through the action of the diaphragm and the thoracic muscles . Hence the air passes to the larynx, where it stimulates the vocal cords and produces the voice. After crossing the glottis and the pharynx, it goes outwards through the oral cavity, where the sounds are articulated by the special arrangement that the veil of the palate, the tongue, the lips the mouth adopt.
  • 83. Trait of a sound. It is the name that refers to a property articulatory or acoustic sound. It is a real property because the movement of an articulatory organ or the acoustic effect it produces is noted.
  • 84. Vocal resonance. It is produced by the effect of air converted into voice, which reaches the tracts that are resonators.
  • 85. Breathing. It comprises two phases: inspiration and expiration. The air released when exhaling is used for phonation; so that, when speaking, the lungs are not at rest but actively expel air.
  • 86. Syllable. Sound or articulated sounds that constitute a single phonic nucleus between two successive depressions of the voice emission
  • 87. Abala syllable. It is the stressed syllable or in which it carries the pronunciation. It has the lowest voice intensity, it can go before or after the tonic syllable. For example, [Wednesday].
  • 88. Brief syllable. The shortest in languages ​​that, like Latin and Greek, regularly use two measures of syllabic quantity.
  • 89. Long syllable. The longest in languages ​​that, like Latin and Greek, regularly use two measures of syllabic quantity.
  • 90. Free syllable. The one that ends in a vowel; p. eg, the passing ones .
  • 91. Proton syllable. The unstressed in the word precedes the tonic.
  • 92. Tonic syllable. The one with the prosodic accent therefore the greatest voice strength . E.g,. [Curtain].
  • 93. Syllable locked. The one that ends in consonant; p. eg, shepherd’s .
  • 94. Sinalefa. Link syllables by which one of the last of a word and the first of the next, when that ends in a vowel and it begins with a vowel, preceded or not formed h molting. Sometimes it links three-word syllables; p. eg, He left for Europe .
  • 95. Sirrema. They are groupings that occur in the spoken chain as a product of the need for accentual support. Words unstressed by the lack of accent rest on other accented words forming an indissoluble core. Sirrema refers to this union and becomes the immediate unity superior to the word or also the syntactic unity between the word and the phrase or sentence. Inside the sirrema there are no breaks. For example, Peter’s house. [lakása depedro].
  • 96. Sound. Term used in phonology to designate the oral realization of a phoneme, consisting of pertinent and non-pertinent features. The sounds of language are produced by muscle movements: breathing, phonation and articulation.
  • 97. Link sound. Term used in phonology to refer to a sound that is introduced between linguistic units, usually to facilitate pronunciation.
  • 98. Ideal sound. That sound recognized by all as unique and is the object of study of phonology, is represented by square brackets [].
  • 99. Real sound. It is that sound that corresponds to the real performance of the speaker (speech) and is studied by phonetics; It is represented by bars //.
  • 100. Loudness. Fundamental term used in the phonetic classification of speech sounds to refer to the auditory result of the vocal cord vibration.
  • 101. Sound sounds. They are produced with vibration of the vocal cords. They are all the vowels a, e, i, o, u and the consonants b, d, g, l, m, n, r, rr, and, ñ, ll.
  • 102. Deaf sounds. They occur when air passes through the glottis without vibration. They are: p, t, k, s, f, j, z, ch.
  • 103. Central Subsystems. Charles Hockett divided the language into central subsystems to emphasize the relationship of the elements of the language. In this case the elements are not directly related to the non-linguistic world in which they occur and are: grammar, phonology and morphophonemic.
  • 104. Peripheral subsystems . Elements of a language that are directly linked to the non-linguistic world as with the central subsystems and are: semantics and phonetics.
  • 105. Doorbell. Quality sound, which differentiates the same tone and depends on the shape and nature of the elements that come into vibration.
  • 106. Tone. Term used in phonology to refer to the distinctive fundamental tone level of a syllable. The unit on which the tone falls is called the unit that carries the tone.
  • 107. Voice tone. Term used by some linguists as part of the analysis of the paralinguistic aspects of the voice, for example: to express emotional states such as anger or sarcasm, the voice is said to have a “rough” or “tense” quality, effects that are sometimes characteristic of an individual’s language.
  • 108. Tonema. Inflection set. They are the ascent (ascent) or descent (descent) of tones, also called inflections.
  • 109. Falling tone. Also called descending inflection, it is characterized by the low tone when a word is pronounced. In writing it is symbolized with the period.
  • 110. Tonema anticadente. Also called ascending inflection, it is characterized by the high pitch when a word is pronounced. In writing it is symbolized with the question mark.
  • 111. Semi-preceding tonema. It is characterized by the least descending tone when a word is pronounced. In writing it sometimes coincides with the comma, the quotes and the colon.
  • 112. Semianticant tonema. It is characterized by the least ascending tone when a word is pronounced. In writing it coincides with the comma.
  • 113. Tract. All that has a space with entry and exit.
  • 114. Vocal tract. Term generally used in phonetics to refer to the entire air passage above the larynx, whose configuration is the main factor that affects the timbre of speech sounds.
  • 115. Nasal tract. Passage through which the air from the lungs is expelled, the nasal tract is located above the soft palate, inside the nose.
  • 116. Oral tract. It is formed by the mouth and the pharyngeal areas. It is here that the articulation of the voice itself is produced.
  • 117. Triptongo. Set of three vowels that form a single syllable. For example, you were running away.
  • 118. Uvula. Middle part of the palatine veil, with a conical shape and membranous and muscular texture, which divides the free edge of the veil into two halves as arches.
  • 119. Palate veil. Also called soft palate, it is located behind the palate and concludes in the uvula or bell.
  • 120. Vibrant. Term used in Phonetics, in the mode of articulation. There is an action of the tip of the tongue (apex) on the alveoli. This movement and contact can last a moment.
  • 121. Simple vibrant. Term used in Phonetics, according to the point of articulation, occurs with the lips parted, apex in contact with the alveoli. The edges of the tongue touch the inner part of the molars, the gum and part of the palate. The sound glottis and the veil lifted or glued to the pharyngeal wall.
  • 122. Multiple vibrating. Term used in Phonetics, according to the point of articulation. It has the same features / a / r /, but with more pressure on the alveoli, as explosions followed.
  • 123. Vocals. They are free sounds that leave the outside without major obstacle with exceptions of slight resonance. Spanish has a fairly defined system: a, e, i, o, u.
  • 124. Open vowel. The degree of opening is maximum. [to].
  • 125. Anterior vowels: It is said of the vowels produced by the advancement of the tongue towards the teeth, at the same time as it rises towards the palate: [e], [i].
  • 126. Central vowel. The tongue is in a position close to what it has when we breathe: [a].
  • 127. Closed vowel. The opening degree of the air outlet channel is minimal: [i], [u].
  • 128. Later vowels. The tongue folds and rises towards the veil of the palate: [o], [u].
  • 129. Semi-open vowels. The tongue narrows the air outlet channel as it travels toward the teeth or rises towards the veil of the palate. [e], [o].
  • 130. Voice. It is the sound that the air emitted from the respiratory organs produces when leaving the larynx, making the vocal cords vibrate

 

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