There is talk of content analysis to a set of research theories that as a goal tend to facilitate a description of a system between semantic components and formulas in all types of messages, ranging from the message with form and its meaning leaving the sender to the audience, the manifest content is studied giving the reliable result even if they are not very relevant, such as the latent content that although it is not of low security but its information is of greater importance.
It is an analysis of a society in its reality through the observation of it, based on the documentation that is formed as part of a database, which once combined with the observation and analysis of the document is reached A truthful result. By having this data you can generate the formulas of a system, giving it numerical values and taking statistics, channeling its forms of production and consumption; as their social disciplines and the study of communication that not only knows the meanings of the data of their issuers (the society) that they think of themselves, dividing into nominal, ordinal and by scales. Being a set of techniques that give meaning to the analysis and its results.
There are several types of content analysis , such as content exploration analysis, paving a range of possibilities for a hypothesis. The content verification analysis, which verifies the truthfulness, realism and fundamentals of the hypothesis. Qualitative content analysis evaluates the topics and words in the content . Quantitative content analysis quantifies data between frequencies and comparisons with each other. Direct content analysis is more literal than what has already been established as a study norm and hypothesis. Indirect content analysis is when, by way of interpretation, the elements that indirectly affect the related elements are analyzed .
The estimation of a content analysis goes from a parameter established as content that shows a hypothesis of something or a stable relationship with each other, with the throwing of some data through a correspondence of probable indicators, applying the analysis according to the techniques and obtaining some Results of a hypothesis.
Content analysis is characterized by investigating the symbolic meaning of the messages. As a research technique, this tool provides knowledge, new intellections and a representation of the facts. The results must be reproducible to be reliable.
- Description of the components of an information.
- Hypothesis testing on the characteristics of a message .
- Comparison of media content with the real world.
- Evaluation of the image of specific social groups.
- Establishment of a starting point for studies on the effects of the media.
Steps for content analysis
Define the universe and the sample
Sampling consists of the definition of the universe from the distribution of characters to analyze. You should consider the various factors that can influence the nature of the messages: periods of the year, days of the week, time of day.
Establish and define the units of analysis
The unit of record or analysis covers the word, the subject, the character, the event and the document. The context unit is the largest division of content that an encoder can query to assign value to the basic coding unit.
Establish and define categories and subcategories
Establish and define the categories and subcategories that represent the research variables. The categories are sections or classes that bring together a group of elements under a generic title and that are grouped according to common characters of these elements. The categories must be exhaustive, mutually exclusive and derive from the theoretical framework of the research.