Cybergraphy concept how to do it and examples


The cibergrafía , also known as webography refers to the set of resources and sources of information taken from the Internet. It is a way of referring to the origin of some documentation that has not been taken from other media such as books or magazines, but comes directly from digital media. Cybergraphy concept how to do it

The term originates in analogy to the word “bibliography.” Among other expressions, there is also “web bibliography”. It comes from the union of the prefix “cyber”, used to talk about what is related to computing, and the suffix “spelling”, from the Greek graphō which means “to write”.

However, the use of the word cybergraphy can be limited to when you want to emphasize the origin of a set of data or information, since the term “bibliography” is broader and can be used to refer to all kinds of resources and sources. without classifying them by their origin.


Cybergraphy is a list made up of website hyperlinks and digital information that has been used as a source or resource to carry out a work or work on a topic. It is always placed at the end of the writings, whether it is articles, essays, thesis, publications, works, etc. Cybergraphy concept how to do it

Researchers make use of cybergraphies to find information of interest. The formats may vary depending on the data available from the source and the type of resource used, be it a website, online magazine, videos or other digital platforms.

Usually, it is the academic institutions that define the way in which bibliographic information should be presented, since each one could use a style manual of their choice.

How to do a cybergraphy?

Within a bibliography, the data that allow identifying the source from which information is obtained must be detailed. Each reference must contain elements that are essential and others that are complementary.

Essential elements are the elements without which a document could not be identified. Some of these elements are: author, title and web address.

On the other hand, the complementary data refers to the extra information that can be added and that is useful to be able to identify the source in a more specific or precise way. Some of these data are page number, publication or volume number, name of the publisher, name of the web portal, etc. depending on the site where it is located.

Cybergraphy and all kinds of bibliographic information in general are located at the end of the work, whether it is thesis, book, article, among others.

The bibliographic references are located in a list and organized alphabetically, taking the author’s last name or title as a reference, depending on the information available.

Cybergraphs example

In order to carry out a cybergraphy or any type of bibliography, it is necessary to follow a style or reference manual. These serve as guides to present the information appropriately and efficiently.

Style manuals define the ways in which the content of a work is structured, how it should be written, how it should be presented, etc. The most widely used manual is the APA standards.

One of the most widespread style manuals worldwide. It was created by the American Psychological Association and first published as a manual in 1952. Today it is widely used for academic papers and within the social sciences.

The APA standards establish a bibliographic reference mode for “electronic documents”, which refers to any type of information found within a computer medium. These can be books, magazines, articles, online newspapers, databases, videos, or websites. Cybergraphy concept how to do it

In this way, the data that may appear within the references of a cybergraphy are:

– Last name and initial of the name of the author or authors.

-Publication date.

-Title of the consulted document.

-Date of the consultation.

-Url address of the website where the information comes from.

However, depending on the type of font, some variations can be found.


For e-book titles: Surname, N. (year of publication). Document title. Retrieved the day, month, year, from the source URL.

Hernández R (1997). Investigation methodology. Retrieved February 17, 2019 from www.uv.mx

For news articlesSurname, N. (year of publication). Document title. Title of the newspaper. Retrieved the day, month, year, from the source URL

Howard, J. (2020). Life expectancy in the US rises for the first time in 4 years as drug overdoses and cancer deaths decline. CNN. Retrieved on January 4, 2020 from cnnespanol.cnn.com

For electronic journal articles Surname, N. (year of publication). Document title. [electronic version]. Magazine title.

Lamsal, M. (2012). The Structuring Approach of Anthony Giddens. Himalayan Journal of Sociology & Antropology-Vol. V

If the article has a different format than the printed version , that is, it is not in PDF, the URL and date of consultation are added

Garrido, I. (2020) Birds of Prey: Margot Robbie shows how women are conquering the world of comics. Vogue. Retrieved on January 5, 2020 from www.vogue.mx

Also, if there are multiple references that come from the same author, they are arranged chronologically. On the other hand, the name of the author is not repeated, but is replaced by a margin or space of 1.5 cm. If the same author has several works published in the same year, after the publication date “a, b, c …” is added.

Other style manuals

Apart from the APA standards, there are other manuals used more specifically or to a lesser extent, such as the Chicago style, which is widely recognized in the United States. Cybergraphy concept how to do it

There is also the Modern Language Association (MLA) style, focused and used internationally, specifically for areas such as language, arts and literature , although it has expanded into the social sciences in general.

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