Psycholinguistics & Neurolinguistics

NEUROLINGUISTICS

NEUROLINGUISTICS,What is Neuro Linguistic Programming?

 

NEUROLINGUISTICS

 

According to experts, neurolinguistics has an interdisciplinary root since it benefits from contributions from linguistics , neurobiology and computational linguistics . The notion of neurolinguistics is usually linked to the study of aphasia , a difficulty that reflects a linguistic deficiency from specific forms of brain damage.

Therefore, it is customary to say that aphasiology constitutes the historical basis of neurolinguistics. Anyway, over the years, this discipline achieved a valuable development and has been complemented by new technologies, which expanded its field of action.

For example, the most modern brain imaging techniques allowed access to new knowledge about anatomical structure based on language functions. With these images, the use of energy in the brain area can be analyzed while performing actions aimed at processing the language.

The so-called electrophysiological techniques EEG (electroencephalography) and EMG (electromyography) , meanwhile, offer a resolution on a millisecond scale, although the nature of the brain mechanism that causes electrical signals on the scalp has not yet been studied. , which hinders its interpretation. EEG and EMG are used to test cognitive-computational theories related to the organization of language, without considering its neurobiological implementation.

For a better understanding of the concept we can explain that the brain is divided into two halves that are identical to the naked eye, which are called left and right hemisphere ; The first is the one we use mostly when we are creating something, the second is the one that deals with the logical issues and usually presents a greater activity when we are talking or studying mathematics. Each of these halves is formed by four lobes: the frontal lobe (controls the movements), the parietal lobe (makes association between different information), the temporal lobe (takes care of the auditory capacity and of processing the temporal relations) and the occipital lobe (processes graphic information and understanding of written language).
The Neuroligüística studies is responsible for studying the normal functioning of speech mechanisms, taking into account the characteristic functions of each area of ​​the brain.

It is interesting to mention that neurolinguistics is closely linked to psycholinguistics , which studies the cognitive mechanisms of language through the traditional techniques of experimental psychology .
Psycholinguistics is the discipline that is related to both cognitive and linguistic psychology and specializes in studying mental processes related to the understanding and issuance of messages in a communication situation. The elements that are involved in this study are the psychological and neurological factors that make it possible for people to acquire a language and use it properly.

What is Neurolinguistic Programming?

Steve Bavister and Amanda Vickers (2014), define Neurolinguistic Programming as a communication model that focuses on identifying and using thinking models that influence a person’s behavior as a way to improve the quality and effectiveness of life.

A problem of NLP is the nature of its name, since when the term Neurolinguistic Programming is mentioned to people who have never heard of it, the reaction is usually a bit negative. On the other hand, the name could provoke that we are facing empirical techniques derived from  neurosciences , but there is no evidence to prove their effectiveness.

Stephen Briers (2012) says that NLP is not really a coherent treatment, but “a hodgepodge of different techniques without a very clear theoretical basis.” This author maintains that the maxim of Neurolinguistic Programming is  narcissistic ,  self-centered and dissociated from the notions of responsibility. 

In addition, he affirms that “sometimes we have to accept and mourn the death of our dreams, not only dismiss them occasionally as an inconsequential thing. The reframe of NLP puts us in the role of a widower avoiding the pain of grieving by jumping into a relationship with a younger woman, without stopping to say an appropriate goodbye to her dead wife. “

What is the model of Neurolinguistic Programming?

What is Neurolinguistic Programming?

Steve Bavister and Amanda Vickers (2014), define Neurolinguistic Programming as a communication model that focuses on identifying and using thinking models that influence a person’s behavior as a way to improve the quality and effectiveness of life.

A problem of NLP is the nature of its name, since when the term Neurolinguistic Programming is mentioned to people who have never heard of it, the reaction is usually a bit negative. On the other hand, the name could provoke that we are facing empirical techniques derived from  neurosciences , but there is no evidence to prove their effectiveness.

Stephen Briers (2012) says that NLP is not really a coherent treatment, but “a hodgepodge of different techniques without a very clear theoretical basis.” This author maintains that the maxim of Neurolinguistic Programming is  narcissistic ,  self-centered and dissociated from the notions of responsibility. 

In addition, he affirms that “sometimes we have to accept and mourn the death of our dreams, not only dismiss them occasionally as an inconsequential thing. The reframe of NLP puts us in the role of a widower avoiding the pain of grieving by jumping into a relationship with a younger woman, without stopping to say an appropriate goodbye to her dead wife. “

What is the model of Neurolinguistic Programming?

The world is experienced through five senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste. A lot of information comes to us continuously; consciously and unconsciously we eliminate what we don’t want to pay attention to . They tell us that the remaining information is based on our past experiences, values ​​and beliefs. With what we end up being incomplete and inaccurate, since some of the general information has been removed, and the rest has been generalized or distorted.

What is NLP based on?

The most important thing to have a vision about what Neurolinguistic Programming is is to know that it is based on four fundamental aspects, which are known as the “four pillars”, according to Steve Bavister and Amanda Vickers (2014).

1. Results

To achieve something, we talk about objectives, in the NLP the term results is used. If there is a prior concentration on what you want to achieve, there will be a guide that will guide all available resources of that person to the achievement of an objective.

2. Sensory acuity

Sensory acuity refers to the ability to observe or detect small details to be aware of what is happening around us. People vary a lot when it comes to realizing what they see, hear or feel. There are people who devote themselves to observe their surroundings more, while others focus more on their own emotions and thoughts.

3. Flexibility in behavior

When you start to know what your results are and use your sensory acuity to observe what is happening, the information you get allows you to make adjustments in your behavior, if necessary. If the acts you do do not take you in the direction you want, it is obvious that you should try to take another path or try something different, but many people lack that flexibility in behavior and simply insist on doing the same thing over and over again.

4. Compenetration

The rapport could be considered as that component that unites people. Most of the time it happens naturally, automatically, instinctively. Some people we know seem to share our vital perspective, while there are other people we don’t connect with. The capacity for rapport with others must be improved to obtain more effective relationships.

The presuppositions of Neurolinguistic Programming

Salvador Carrión (2008), says that a presupposition is something we take for granted, without any proof. He tells us that since the Neuro-Linguistic Programming, the assumptions are not intended to be true, although there is evidence that is palpable enough to support many of them. I have tried to look for the “evidence” that supports these assumptions, but I have only found one explanation for each of them.

Life, mind and body are a single system.

The mind and body are considered as a single system, each directly influencing the other. For example, what happens inside your body affects thoughts and affects the people around you.

You can’t stop communicating

The message we try to convey is not always the one that others receive. Therefore, from the NLP they tell us that we must be aware of the reactions of others to see if our message has been successful. This can actually lead to serious difficulties when preparing a message, since focusing on reactions or being alert to possible consequences is not something that will bring quality to the communication.

Under each behavior there is a positive intention

In an addiction or a bad behavior there is always a positive intention, therefore finding the root of that problem and externalizing the positive intention, you can go from smoking for 15 years to not having that need.

If what you are doing does not work, do something else

If you try a way to address a problem and do not get the results you expected, try something different, and keep changing your behavior until you get the answer you were looking for.

If a person can do something, everyone can learn to do it

There is in the NLP, the process of modeling excellence. If you want an article published, for example, you could look at someone who is brilliant writing and imitate the way he does it. In this way, you will be soaking up knowledge of great value.

Criticisms of New Language Programming

Roderique-Davies (2009) states that using the word “neuro” in NLP is “effectively fraudulent since NLP does not offer any explanation at the neuronal level and it could be argued that its use feeds falsely on the notion of scientific credibility.”

On the other hand, Devilly (2005), argues that the so-called ” power therapies ” gain popularity, because they are promoted, like other pseudosciences, using a set of social influence tactics. These include making extraordinary claims such as, “a cure in a single session for any traumatic memory.” These types of strategies are incredibly disproportionate and play with the health of many people who trust in professionals with a supposed preparation and ethics when developing their activity.

Finally, Borgo (2006) refers that the few effective tools or more or less proven theories of Neurolinguistic Programming do not belong exclusively to him and what is new has not been empirically proven . Moreover, what is new, or seems very simplistic, or contradicts what science says.

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