Psycholinguistics & Neurolinguistics

Parts of the human brain with it functions in detail

Brain

The brain is one of the main organs of the body and without a doubt the most complex organ in the animal kingdom. Without the functioning of the brain, the living being cannot survive. It is located on the head near the organs of vision and hearing. It is shaped like a large walnut that weighs approximately 600 grams. Parts of the human brain with it functions

The functions carried out by the brain are produced by the connection of neurons through electromagnetic impulses, although they can also be connected by chemical substances. In general terms, the brain exercises control over the rest of the body’s organs. It is also responsible for the functioning of emotions, language, thinking, and memory.

Specific functions of the brain can be divided according to the right and left hemispheres. For its study and classification of functions, the brain is divided into different areas that will be detailed later.

The etymology of the brain

It comes from the Latin word cerebrum, which, in turn, comes from the composition of two words:

  • Ker. What does it mean: on top of the head
  • Brum. What does “carry” mean?

Both words refer to the centralization process of the central nervous system (CNS).

Brain location

The brain is located in the head and is protected by the bones of the skull. In most living things it is close to the organs of sight, smell, taste, hearing, and sense of balance.

Parts of the brain

Cerebral cortex. It is made up of gray matter and neurons that connect to each other. The cerebral cortex is responsible for language. Within this crust it is classified as follows:

  • Frontal lobe It has the responsibility of planning, perceiving, coordinating, controlling, reasoning, executing behaviors, and omitting judgments. The left frontal lobe is in charge of transforming what we think into words. It is also in charge of motor functions and memory. Also, this left frontal lobe regulates sexual behavior. Parts of the human brain with it functions
  • Parietal lobe. This lobe is located in the upper part behind the frontal lobe. It controls the perceptions of the senses, pain, and touch. It helps the understanding of auditory and traffic signals thanks to the fact that it connects them with memory.
    • Left lobe. It is in charge of understanding written language, speaking, and performing mathematical calculations.
    • Right lobe. It is responsible for the motor functions of the body.
  • Temporal lobe. It is located below the parietal lobe and behind the frontal lobe. Regulates hearing and smell (the part near the hippocampus).
    • Dominant temporal lobe. He is in charge of the memory of words, objects, and names.
    • Non-dominant temporal lobe. It recognizes sounds and is related to non-visual memory.

The three lobes previously described (frontal, parietal and temporal) are in charge of learning.

  • Occipital lobe. It is found on the bottom and back of the head. It works basically on vision, shapes, and movement. Parts of the human brain with it functions

Striated body. Also known as the striated nucleus. It is who receives the information from the cerebral cortex.

The brain stem (stem). It is responsible for regulating breathing, sleep, and heart rate.

Cerebellum. Regulates posture, body balance, and movement.

Hemispheres of the brain

For the understanding and study of the functions of the brain, it can be divided into:

  • Right hemisphere. It is the area that controls the left part of the body. It is responsible for the perceptions, organization of the environment. It is responsible for the spatio-temporal location of the person.
  • Left hemisphere. Regulates the motor part of the right hemisphere of the body. It also receives information from the external environment and processes it for understanding. He is in charge of deciphering mathematical calculations, as well as music and language. It also regulates human behavior.

Brain functions

  • Control behavior and movement
  • Process sensory information
  • You can reach homeostatic control functions such as blood pressure, beating of the heart and the temperature of the body.

Neurons

They are tiny cells belonging to the nervous system that connect to each other and allow the different functions of the brain. These connections can be made by electrical impulses or through chemicals. Parts of the human brain with it functions

The brain has about 100 billion neurons.

Neurotransmitters

The brain is responsible for multiple tasks and those who make this possible are the neurotransmitters it contains. These neurotransmitters are chemicals released by neurons.

Brain regeneration

The brain of an adult being generated new cells (neurons). These cells are formed in the hippocampus. This process is carried out normally as long as the brain has not suffered any injury or disease that affects it. Parts of the human brain with it functions

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