Branch of linguistics whose object of study is the dialect , also known as a diatopic or geographical variation of a language. Dialectology is a descriptive discipline that explains the phenomena of phonetic changes that a language undergoes in a specific region, and at a time ( synchronous study ) or specific times (diachronic study) . Dialectology is a phonetic and phonological explanation that characterizes the speech of a region and studies its achievements and the distribution of phonetic variables in a region, such as the distributions of the phonic segment and the accentual nature of the syllable among other characteristics; It is a real description of the speech facts.
Origin, history or training
It is composed of the Greek word dialectós ( διάλεκτος) and the Greek suffix -logy (λογία) , which means knowledge, treatise or science . Thus, we can deduce that dialectology is the science dedicated to explaining and comparing dialects , understood as linguistic derivations of a common trunk.
For about two thousand years the word dialect was used by the Greeks to refer to varieties of Greek, there are also studies from the twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries that can be considered as antecedents of dialectology. Other important antecedents are the classification of some varieties of the Italian language made by Dante Alighieri, the Rufino José Cuervo Notes in the 19th century, the appearance of Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie (Magazine for Romanesque philology ) and the publication of the French linguistic atlas in the same period; These texts were preparing for the consolidation of dialectology as a branch of linguistics in the twentieth century.
Uses and applications of dialectology
It is used in specialized contexts of the linguistic branches that deal with analyzing the phonetic variations of a language in a region for a certain period of time or for several periods in a comparative way.