Research in science is fundamental projects to obtain advances and new knowledge that allow us to better understand the world, managing and dealing with all kinds of phenomena. But investigations are not a spontaneous phenomenon: they require planning, design and, especially, a reason that justifies their being carried out. This rationale must be particularly compelling in cases where financial and other means are required for the investigation to begin. What is justification in research?
For this reason, before starting a scientific project, it is necessary to develop a justification for that research. Next we are going to see different examples of justification for an investigation and what questions they must answer.
What is justification in an investigation/research?
The justification of an investigation is the part of a scientific project in which the reasons and arguments that have led the person behind proposing it and wanting to carry it out are exposed . This justification must be added when writing the work in writing, usually appearing at the beginning of it, both in the abstract and in the theoretical introduction. Its objective is to try to answer what, how, why and for what purpose the investigation has been carried out.
Therefore, the part of the justification is something fundamental that all scientific work must explain, since it provides the reasons that have led one or more people to decide to start the research that they present in the article or book. These are the reasons that are considered to make research useful and beneficial to the scientific community. It is very important to indicate in it what benefits for common knowledge can carry out or have carried out such research, as well as to advance in the understanding of a certain knowledge as its practical applications.
As its name indicates, the justification of an investigation is the part that justifies the work, that is, within it a series of arguments must be highlighted that must be valid and powerful enough to prove the need to carry out the investigation. When it comes to demonstrating that the work will be useful, there are many options for arguing and defending such research. What is justification in research?
Among the most common we have the fact that this research will allow science to advance in a specific field of knowledge , something that serves as a precedent for more complex and larger investigations to be developed in the future. It can also be indicated that the research will serve so that what has been discovered can be applied as a solution to an important problem for society.
Another interesting argument used in the justification of an investigation is that, based on what has been discovered in it, a new method can be developed of something that was already known to be solved but that will be more economical, that is, that the investigation will allow develop a new system to face a certain problem but lowering costs, improving efficiency or reducing the consumption of resources, improving the quality of life of people who could not afford to pay the classical method or promoting social and educational changes without having as obstacle to the liquidity of funds.
Several examples of justification for an investigation
Now that we know what the justifications of an investigation are and what questions they must answer, using solid and valid arguments, we move on to see several examples of justification of an investigation from different areas . Most come from real investigations, only that here a summary of the part of the introduction has been exposed in which the antecedents of the field to be investigated are exposed a little and what are the reasons, objectives and arguments that have led the research team to deepen on that theme.
1. The effects of television on the behavior of young people
“Television has become the most influential medium in the development of behavior and thought patterns in children and adolescents around the world, some of them quite disruptive (violence, aggressiveness, lack of respect towards teachers and other reference adults. ..). The relationship between television and youth behavior is suspected, but no clear causal link had been identified.
This article aims to review the evidence in favor of the hypothesis of the harmful effects of television , trying to understand more fully the effect of this means of communication on younger audiences, its repercussions at a social level and define how it should be a more responsible television “. What is justification in research?
2. Local development and microfinance as strategies to attend to social needs
“Today, states are involved in two important processes but seen too much at a global level: economics and politics. People often make the mistake of leaving aside the local, a sphere that, focusing on the economic aspect, cannot be understood without understanding the nature of small-scale social development (family, neighborhood, town …) and small economic transactions. that occur in it: microfinance. Although microfinance has been largely ignored, it undoubtedly influences socio-economic policies, albeit often in unexpected ways.
The development of a society cannot be approached only at the global level, but also by paying special interest to the local and trying to understand microfinance in its multiple dimensions: economic, social, environmental, political, cultural and institutional. The objective of this article is precisely to explore these dimensions, addressing the different theoretical approaches to the notions of local development and microfinance in order to establish them as tools for addressing the socioeconomic needs of people with fewer resources.
Since the needs and the capacity to satisfy them are indicative of the poverty of the society, these seemingly insignificant socio-economic aspects should be included in the political agenda , in order to understand and design better intervention strategies for the most disadvantaged people ”.
3. Expression of rabies virus G protein in carrots and corn
“Rabies supposes great economic losses, both in cure methods and in prevention vaccines. The current vaccines are difficult to access and acquire for the population of developing countries, since they do not have the logistical or economic resources so that they The entire population is vaccinated against this pathology, which is why it is necessary to develop new rabies vaccine alternatives, made with resources that can be obtained in countries with mostly subsistence economies.
Among the advantages of plant-derived vaccines we have lower costs in production, storage, transportation and distribution. Furthermore, it is possible to administer plant tissue to human animals without the need to purify the protein of interest. For this reason, it is of interest to find out how the G protein of the rabies virus is expressed in vegetables, specifically in carrots and corn , plants widely cultivated throughout the world. ” What is justification in research?
4. Comprehensive use of crustacean waste
“The shrimp industry discards every year hundreds of tons of crustacean remains, specifically the exoskeleton (the shell) and the cephalothorax (head). These parts contain a substance, chitin, which could have applications in the preservation of highly perishable foods, such as fresh fruits.
At present, several methods have been used to preserve fruit and not all of them are respectful with the environment. The objective of this research is to determine if the application of a biofilm of chitin and chitosan, obtained by green chemistry, is beneficial to extend the useful life of fruits and propose it as a new ecological method in the conservation of the harvest , since these two substances are neither harmful nor aggressive to the environment “.
5. Reduction of depression in old age through reminiscence therapy
“There is little work on the modification of autobiographical memories with different age groups. However, some research has suggested that life review based on the retrieval of autobiographical memories is effective in modifying such memories in people with depression.
This work is based on the results of several studies that indicate a significant reduction in depression symptoms in elderly people who have undergone a program with individual reminiscence sessions, a program that promotes recovery from positive and negative events. The objective of the present study is to analyze what is the relationship between depressive symptoms in old age and the characteristics of autobiographical memories , that is, what role do the memories obtained that explain reduce the symptoms of depression play “.
6. Adherence to pharmacological treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes
“Diabetes mellitus is a disease strongly determined by genetics, in which the individual presents alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, with a relative or absolute deficit of insulin secretion. Between 85 and 90% of patients with diabetes mellitus are type 2 diabetic and it is chronic. What is justification in research?
We understand as adherence to a treatment the behavior of the patient when it coincides with the medical prescription, taking the prescribed drugs, following prescribed diets or maintaining healthy lifestyle habits. Adherence to a treatment is important to evaluate the clinical evolution of a pathology. Studies indicate that 50% of people with chronic diseases comply with their treatment, with several risk factors for this not being the case.
We consider it important to identify in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus what is the frequency of therapeutic non-adherence, what relationship it has with metabolic control, in addition to more precisely detecting which are the most common associated risk factors, in order to carry out tending programs to change their behavior in order to encourage them to follow the treatment that has been prescribed for them . ”
7. Relationship between family climate and school climate
“Classic studies, like that of Bernstein in the 70s, point out that the negative or positive attitude of the adolescent towards the teachers can be determined by the perception that his family has about the educational field. Both the family environment and the attitude towards authority in the classroom seem to be two very important factors in explaining violent behavior in adolescence in the school context.
Taking this into account, the main objective of this work has been to examine the relationship between both contexts from the adolescent’s perception of the family and school climates , analyzing the role played by different individual factors in the interaction between these two contexts ” .
8. Prevention of gender violence in universities
“University faculties are not places outside of gender violence. As a social problem that it is, gender violence affects women of all social classes, ages, cultures and economic levels, and overcomes the classic stereotypes associated with those who suffer it , why and where it occurs It does not matter if it is a socio-economically unfavorable context or if you are in the most select private university: violence against women is everywhere. What is justification in research?
For this reason, the purpose of this research has been to analyze the existence of gender-based violence in Spanish universities and to identify and develop measures that can help prevent it , detecting the main foci, motives and contexts in which there are more possibilities for it to occur. produce in the university population “.
9. Linguistic study in children with Down syndrome
“This final degree project focuses on Down Syndrome , specifically on defining the basic abilities possessed by people with this intellectual disability, focusing on the processes of literacy during Primary Education.
The purpose of the study is to obtain information that will help those families who have a member with this syndrome , in order to help them progress taking into account their linguistic abilities and develop resources that allow the acquisition of theoretical-practical skills to be able to progress at work , socially and personally “.
10. Effects of the implementation of a VAT system in the United Arab Emirates
“The six member countries of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCEAG) agreed to launch a common market to increase investment and trade among their members. To facilitate this proposal, the countries agreed to implement a value-added tax system (VAT) for the year 2012.
It is very necessary to evaluate the basic principles and the social and economic implications that this new measure could have before it is officially applied . The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the proposed VAT system and what socio-economic repercussions it could imply for the Gulf countries, in addition to identifying possible risks and developing preventive strategies. ” What is justification in research?
11. Study on the benefits of reading aloud to students
“One of the most traditional pedagogical techniques is to read aloud to students. One student reads aloud, while the others follow the reading in their respective books, being aware of which line they go to and, if any, the teacher so requests, change another student to read aloud.
Although classic, the benefits of reading aloud and listening for content acquisition in class have not been fully evaluated. Among the suspected benefits of this technique we have that the student not only learns to control the volume of his voice or knows how to project it in a public context such as the class, but also, if he has to listen, it allows him to improve the capacity active listening, internalizing academic knowledge.
The objective of the present investigation is to find out to what extent these suspected advantages are real, and to see if the method of reading aloud to students, both by the teacher and by one of them, improves comprehension and skills. It feeds the student’s critical thinking , following the class more and asking himself questions about the content while simultaneously acquiring it “.
12. Project to increase production in Chino Winds
“Before 1992, the Yavapai ranch was exploited in a traditional way. About two-thirds of the ranch was not fenced and a rather simple irrigation system was used. The cattle walked freely all year round within this portion of land, having little control of what they ate and without exposing potentially fertile areas that could be used for growing fruits, vegetables, and cereals. Livestock’s favorite areas were those near water sources, wasted as there was no complex irrigation system to irrigate the entire property. What is justification in research?
The poor exploitation of the Yavapai Ranch is surprising since, taking into account its potential profitability, it turns out to be a great wasted production opportunity. The reason for this project is to improve the irrigation system and make better use of the land, hoping for a greater increase in production and consequently a greater obtaining of income that defies investment costs. In addition, by controlling grazing, it is expected to improve the vegetation cover of the historically exploited areas on the ranch, albeit passively. ”
13. Teaching mathematics and understanding its usefulness in real life
“Until today, the way of teaching mathematics has focused on giving the student a definition or a formula, showing them an example of how to use it and hoping that they know how to imitate it, without explaining or having the certainty that they understand what they have to do Nor does it promote the development of the student’s creative and integrative capacity, memorization is more emphasized than comprehension, and traditional tools do not provide the tools to investigate, analyze and discern the problem.
The main objective and motive of this project is to make students learn to use mathematics in their day to day, learning that they are useful for all kinds of areas beyond the subject of mathematics: economics, technology, science … So, It is proposed to give them real examples, in which they themselves have to use their knowledge and resolution capacity to propose a resolution process, talking to each other or communicating in the most precise way all their mental processing. What is justification in research?
The justification for this project is the large number of students who, after being explained what to do or what formula to apply, detach it from reality itself. There are not a few students who when they finish the mathematics course it is as if they had not learned anything, in the sense that they are not able to see the relationship between what they have learned in that subject and their real life. The subject of mathematics is not in the curriculum to teach useless content, but to make it easier for people to understand reality and solve problems in real life , like any other subject “.
14. Study on the reproduction of sockeye salmon in Canada
“The objective of this study is to observe and analyze the habits of the sockeye salmon from the Fraser River (British Columbia, Canada). The justification for this research is that, due to global environmental changes and the increase in the temperature of the water, it has been found that the population of this species in this area has changed, not being certain that the species is out of danger and even suspecting a possible risk that the sockeye salmon could end up being a threatened species ”
The incidence of human beings on this species is well known and historical, since the exploitation of natural resources in its habitat and other economic activities had already dramatically modified the ecological niche where sockeye salmon develop and reproduce. Knowing what the adaptation and change processes of this species have been, more specific conservation programs can be developed, in addition to starting environmental projects that prevent the total disappearance of the sockeye salmon “.
15. Justification of the treatment and use of laboratory animals
“The use of animals in scientific research is something historically seen as necessary since there are ethical codes that protect people from taking part in experiments without their consent or causing them some kind of damage, both physical and mental. Although to a certain extent Necessary point, animal research has opened many debates, since the use of non-human animals is done to test techniques that would never be used in humans, such as implanting diseases, testing potentially dangerous drugs or removing vital parts.
Despite the fact that throughout the 20th century and what we have been in the 21st, multiple ethical codes have been developed in which the ethical treatment of laboratory animals is addressed, the simple fact of using them without their consent is an aspect that movements animalists do not overlook. Research should be carried out only if there is a clear scientific purpose, and that involves minimal harm and suffering to the animal.
This point is not the justification for actual research, but rather what is deemed necessary to justify research using animals. The scientific purpose of the research must have a great potential benefit for scientific knowledge at the cost of suffering , preferably not very serious, of the animal. The species that are chosen must be the most appropriate, that they are not in danger of extinction or protected by law and that it is known how to treat them in the least stressful way possible but that implies some kind of scientific benefit “.