Types of disability definition 6 types and their characteristics

Each of us is unique, has different characteristics and lives a different life than everyone else. However, most of us have a number of common skills and abilities that are generally taken for granted in most people. And in some cases, and due to different circumstances, some people lose or have not developed in the same way that the majority of the population claimed to have abilities. In this article we will let you know about the types of disability.

For this reason, these people may suffer various difficulties in different aspects of their lives, and may suffer different types of disability, depending on the type of problems or the abilities or organs that present some alteration. And it is these different types of disabilities that we will talk about in this article.

What is disability?

We understand disability as any situation in which a subject has limited participation in some type of scope or action , due to the existence of some type of disability in any organ or intellectual capacity. It is in itself the existence of a limitation, not being a cause but a consequence.

The existence of a disability thus implies a difficulty or obstacle to the subject’s participation in society or in some aspect or vital domain, compared to the possibilities presented by those without the disability in question or even by the subject himself in a previous period. your life.

Obviously, the disability does not imply that the person who has it cannot reach and perform the same activities, as long as there is help adjusted to their needs.

The different types of disability

As we indicated earlier, there is not just one type of disability, but we can find different classifications depending on the type of problem in which the difficulties arise. Thus, we can establish different main types of disability, the first three being the most considered.

1. Physical disability

It receives the name of physical or motor disability for all this type of limitation generated by the presence of a problem associated with a decrease or elimination of motor or physical abilities , such as the physical loss of a limb or its usual functionality.

This type of disability arises in the context of spinal problems, traffic accidents, head trauma, medical illness that causes physical limitations, amputations, congenital malformations or strokes.

2. Sensory deficiency

Sensory impairment refers to the existence of limitations derived from the existence of deficiencies in any of the senses that allow us to perceive the environment, whether external or internal . There are changes in all aspects, although the best known are visual and hearing impairment.

3. Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability is defined as any limitation of intellectual functioning that hinders social participation or the development of autonomy or areas such as academic or professional, having an IQ below 70 and influencing different cognitive abilities and social participation. There are different degrees of intellectual disability , which have different implications in terms of the type of difficulties they may present.

4. Psychic disability

We talk about psychic disability when we are faced with a situation in which there are behavioral changes and adaptive behavior , usually derived from suffering from some type of mental disorder.

5. Visceral deficiency

This little-known type of disability appears in those people who suffer from some type of disability in any of their organs, which generates limitations in the subject’s life and participation in the communityThis is the case for those that can lead to diabetes or heart problems .

6. Multiple disability

This type of disability is what stems from a combination of limitations derived from some of the above disabilities. For example, a blind subject with an intellectual disability or a paraplegic subject with deafness.

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