Irrationalism is the philosophical current that diminishes the value of rational capacity as a means of knowing reality . This philosophical school was a response to the exaltation of self-reason by thinkers as influential as Descartes. From an epistemological point of view, this form of knowledge defends the irrational pre-eminence of reality.
opposition to rationalism
One of the most important thinkers and exponent of Irrationalism was Schopenhauer. He viewed the world as a non-rational manifestation of impulses that could not be fully understood through the power of reason. The point of view of a rational world starts from a perspective of the world as a disorderly environment and the presence of chaos. While rationalism is the only human capacity that allows us to know reality in its logical perspective, on the contrary, irrationalism is the opposite current. Irrationalism
Irrationalism believes that reason is nothing more than an illusion that produces the false hope of being able to embrace the world through this form of knowledge. The irrationalists consider that the complexity of reality cannot encompass a conceptual language , but a transcendental one.
From this perspective, reality transcends the capacity of human understanding in many respects, it goes beyond its own rational limits. Ontological irrationalism, for example, describes the reality of things as a force marked by elements that are unpredictable, such as bad luck or luck. From this point of view, ontology is fueled by the illogic of everything that exists.
Rationalism defends the importance of other forms of knowledge such as intuition to understand reality, while rational knowledge defends the importance of scientific knowledge .
Irrationalism was also a response to Hegelian idealism. Thinkers as important as Kierkegaard and Unamuno are vitalists, that is, they observe the transcendent dimension of life as an object of study that cannot be attended to from the parameters of conventional reason. Irrationalism values the very experience of living as a form of knowledge.
This form of irrationalism can be applied in several aspects, as well as morals and religion that for centuries were explained according to rational criteria. For example, Nietzsche believed that Christianity was a way of offering security to the weakest.
Whereas rationalism concludes that what is real must be rational, irrationalism breaks this association of cause and effect.