English Grammar

Verbs characteristics types examples with detail

Verbs

Verbs are those words that indicate the action or state of the subject of a sentence, be it person, animal or thing. They are words that we use all the time to indicate movements and situations, for example: “it rains in the city”, “I’m going to eat bread”, “the dog barks”. Verbs characteristics types examples

Verbs are made up of a root (the part of the word that does not change, unless it is an irregular verb) and an ending, suffix or ending, which changes according to the conjugation, the person or the time. For example: eat, eat, eat.

Verb characteristics

Terminations

In Spanish, verbs are divided into three large groups according to their infinitive ending: “-ar” (love, dream, sing, study), “-er” (eat, drink, have, be) and “-ir” (sleep, laugh, fry, lie). Proportionally, in Spanish there are a greater number of verbs ending in -ar.

Person and number

Verbs are conjugated or inflected by person and number.

  • According to the person

-First person, when the speaker exercises the action: I study; we eat.

-Second person, when the speaker addresses an interlocutor: you read; you sing.

-Third person, when the speaker addresses a person other than the sender or receiver: he / she wants to sleep; they / them going to the field.

  • According to the number

-Singular, when the action is executed by a single person: me, you, him / her.

-Plural, when the action is executed by two or more people: us, you, them.

Time and mode

Verbs are conjugated according to the time in which the action or situation occurs (present, past and future), and the intention of the speaker (indicative, subjunctive and imperative mood).

  • Weather

-Present: the action takes place at the moment in which it is spoken: I want to eat; they live in Mexico.

-Pasado: the action has already passed: I grew up in the field; he slept like a dormouse; you swam a lot.

-Future: the action has not happened: we will travel in summer; will go to the supermarket; you will climb Everest.

-Conditional: it is a time from which a possibility is deduced: if I had money, I would buy a large apartment.

  • Verbal mode

The verbal mode indicates the intention of the speaker regarding the action. In Spanish there are three modes: imperative, indicative and subjunctive. Verbs characteristics types examples

-Indicative: expresses objective actions and situations: I do my homework; Manuel cleans his room; they sing songs.

-Subjunctive: it is the time in which wishes or possibilities are expressed: when I have time I will go on vacation; maybe Juan will come tonight; if the conditions were given, we would hold the meeting.

-Imperative: express orders or requests: Juan, eat your food !; read this book, please.

Verb forms or verboids

In Spanish there are three verb forms or verboids: the infinitive, the participle (“eaten, read, laughed”), and the gerund (“eating, reading, laughing”). They are also called non-personal forms of the verb.

-Infinitive, it is the natural form of verbs (play, read, laugh), and sometimes they can function as nouns: loving my children is everything to me; i like to read .

-Participle, is the non-personal form of the verb that can function as an adjective. It ends in -ado, -ada in -ar verbs: bought, played, loved.

It ends in -ido, -ida, when verbs end in –er and –ir: food, laughed, fought, party.

-Gerund, is a non-personal form of the verb that can function as an adverb (he arrived panting ; he fell asleep smiling ), but it also indicates a continuous time in the action: I am eating apples; I’ve been sleeping very badly.

It ends in –ando in –ar verbs, and in –iendo, in verbs ending in –er and –ir.

  • Simple and compound verb tenses

Simple verb tenses are all those that directly describe an action or situation; for example: Susana studies physics, Raúl fished in the river, María will sing tonight.

Compound tenses are the tenses that are made up of an auxiliary verb (such as ser, estar, haber or tener) and a verb. For example: Susana has studied physics, Raúl is fishing in the river.

Verb types and examples

Regular and irregular

Regular verbs are those that keep their root the same in any conjugation, such as love: I love, I will love, I loved. Those verbs that change the stem when conjugated are irregular, such as go: I’m going, you go, he went.

  • Examples of regular verbs are walk, swim, study, throw, add, multiply, eat, understand, run, lose, live, build, receive, insist, write.
  • Examples of irregular verbs are to snow, to play, to dream, to beg, to win, to be able, to put, to scold, to ask, to suggest.

Transitive and intransitive

Transitive verbs are those that need the presence of a direct object for the sentence to make sense. For example: I study biology (the direct object is biology , since it answers the question “what do I study?”), I watched a movie (direct object: film , which answers the question “what did I see?

Intransitive verbs are those that cannot have a direct object, or whose sentence can work without the need for a direct object. For example: Ramón walks through the park, Juan goes to town.

Copulatives

They are those verbs with a minimal meaning, whose function is to connect subject and predicate, and that can disappear without affecting the meaning of the sentence. For example: “the house is dirty” and “the house is dirty”.

The main copulative verbs are “to be” and “to be”, but they can also function as copulatives “to appear”, “to result”, “to continue”, “to continue”, etc .: the raid was unsuccessful (the raid was unsuccessful), the road It seemed endless (the endless road).

Impersonal

Impersonal verbs, also called defectives, are those that are conjugated in the third person singular, or as verbs, and almost always describe meteorological phenomena. For example: it rains over Madrid, it snows in the mountains, it gets dark , it dawned . Verbs characteristics types examples

The 100 most common verbs

Ending in -AR

to love

Like

Punish

Tell

Throw

To work

Call

Look

Sing

Speak

Wake up

Put off

Give

Try

Burn down

Steal

To wash

Play

to snow

Jump

Cut off

Study

Throw

Jump

Clean up

To travel

To walk

Hear

Finish

Fight

Take a walk

To admire

To be

Think

Fly

to snack

Sound

Comment

To swim

Draw

Praise

Add

Subtract

Multiply

Ending in -ER

To be

Rain

To protect

Read

Make

Defend

To drink

To have

Dawn

Born

Understand

Believe

Watch

Overcome

To put

Grow up

To lose

Grind

Eat

To hurt

Hate

To run

Set

Supply

To have

Descend

Abstain

Want

To flourish

Absorb

Ending in -IR

Live

Increase

Ask

To go

Shake

Prevent

To sleep

Fight

Suggest

Die

Argue

Quarrel

Feel

Amuse

Insist

Smile

Build

Divide

To laugh

Suffer

Come

Write

Receive

Bring down

To lie

Rot

Abduct

Live together

Cover

Go

Examples of sentences with verbs

Highlighted verbs appear in the verb lists above.

  1. Sandra loves Mexico City.
  2. They throw stones in the lake.
  3. Gustavo sang very beautifully.
  4. Let’s thank God for this good day.
  5. Mom will wash the covers tomorrow.
  6. You cut the tomatoes.
  7. Let’s clean up the classroom after school.
  8. Is finished salt to grill.
  9. Rebecca is sad.
  10. I dream of the Christmas holidays.
  11. Gustavo likes Dominican meringue.
  12. We are working hard in this office .
  13. We have heard a lot about this movie.
  14. Pablo will try to be present.
  15. The boys played soccer every afternoon.
  16. Do you study engineering?
  17. We travel for pleasure.
  18. Carlos and Estefanía are fighting again .
  19. Gustavo thought you were sick.
  20. No one commented on how the fight had ended .
  21. They punished all the boys in the section.
  22. Leon, call Ramiro who wanted to talk to you.
  23. I woke up ready and ready for the new day. Verbs characteristics types examples
  24. Balbino was burned in the oven.
  25. It has snowed all night.
  26. NASA launched a space probe last night.
  27. Nothing like walking through the woods.
  28. Ramona and Marcela walk through the forest.
  29. Pigeons fly between buildings.
  30. You swam every afternoon.
  31. There you have cattle again.
  32. They are watching  the game.
  33. Gustavo took Maruja’s cap off.
  34. My pen was stolen in the living room.
  35. Children jump through the bushes.
  36. They were jumping rope during recess.
  37. Listen to your grandfather that he knows what he says .
  38. Natacha admired her friend’s effort to arrive earlier.
  39. They picnicking tea with milk and cookies.
  40. Natalia draws the seascape.
  41. René has cried all afternoon.
  42. They add up to five plus three.
  43. They have taken away what we paid for on the way.
  44. If we multiply efforts we will be invincible.
  45. Pepe tried the soup and didn’t like it .
  46. He is a cop.
  47. I read Harari’s book and it got me thinking .
  48. The girls drink sodas in the house.
  49. Ramón was born in 2012.
  50. You will see the peak after that curve.
  51. The mango grew a lot while we were gone .
  52. We ate a lot for breakfast.
  53. The boys run after the ball.
  54. We’ll be lucky if we find tickets.
  55. love you very much, my son.
  56. “This afternoon it’s raining like never before” (Neruda)
  57. The boys will take the toys from their room.
  58. We will make pancakes for breakfast. Verbs characteristics types examples
  59. There were no guavas on that tree.
  60. They don’t understand algebra at all.
  61. ” You will win , but you will not convince ” (Miguel de Unamuno)
  62. He has lost his keys in the dining room.
  63. The wound still hurts .
  64. We are going to put the Christmas tree.
  65. Alba will descend the rope about twenty meters.
  66. The lady of the night blooms once a year.
  67. The roof protects us from the rain.
  68. They defend their ideas and you defend yours.
  69. The day dawned cloudy.
  70. Victor didn’t believe anything.
  71. They have scored several goals for the team.
  72. Here it smells like churrasco.
  73. “ Living to live , it is only worth living to live ” (Joan Manuel Serrat).
  74. Are we all going to the concert?
  75. Lower your voice, the baby is already sleeping .
  76. Cyrus died one autumn afternoon.
  77. I feel much arriving late.
  78. She smiled upon hearing his words.
  79. I don’t laugh because it hurts .
  80. Cortázar wrote his best novel in Paris.
  81. I am not lying to you when I say that it is difficult.
  82. Living together is almost never easy.
  83. We will go up that hill.
  84. Mom beat the eggs to make candy.
  85. Fight with courage and fortitude!
  86. You argue a lot with Elio every time you see each other .
  87. have a lot of fun with this video game.
  88. The Egyptians built pyramids and great temples.
  89. My mother suffers a lot when we are late.
  90. I have received many gifts this Christmas.
  91. The fruits rot under the apple tree.
  92. They will cover the stains with paint.
  93. ” Ask and it shall be given to you ” (New Testament).
  94. They will not prevent the arrival of the holidays.
  95. Marcos suggests finishing that exercise later.
  96. They scolded Pablito for his bad behavior.
  97. Germán insisted on calling her .
  98. Divide and conquer . Verbs characteristics types examples
  99. Mariela hurt her feelings unintentionally .
  100. Come uncles and grandparents to the meeting.

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