What are the types of bullying with causes

Types of bullying

Bullying is a form of violence in the school environment among children, adolescents and young people and it happens very often today. One in four students experience or have experienced school harassment or bullying. Given the high occurrence of this type of abuse in recent years, several studies have been carried out to investigate the causes that originate it with the intention of creating preventive programs in order to detect this problem in time to avoid, as much as possible, the devastating consequences that this type of harassment generates in its victims. In this article we will provide you the different types of bullying.

causes of bullying

The origin of the different types of bullying is usually the same and their cause is related to the personality and social environment of both the aggressor and the victim and their observers.


Regarding the aggressor, the factors that usually make this student adopt this role of abuser over their peers are: lack of impulse control, excessive aggressiveness and anger, dysfunctional family environment and/or tormented by abuse, negligence or lack of limits , lack of self-esteem and a lot of affective deficiency.


With regard to the victim, the person who suffers school harassment is usually characterized as a person with low self-esteem, fearful, with little vital force who, like the aggressor, built his personality on an emotional and psychological basis with certain affective deficiencies.

In this case, these traits gave way to a fragile and fearful personality that is often targeted by people with an abusive personality.


With respect to the group of observers, there are many factors that condition their passive attitude that increases and feeds the abuses carried out, but we can summarize them in two: disorientation in the face of this situation of abuse and the attempt not to call attention to not suffer the same abuse that their colleague or leader approaches as a source of power, copying or encouraging their abusive behavior.

The consequences that happen, in general terms, on the aggressors are an increase in their levels of impulsivity and aggressiveness and in the use of coercive techniques, as a source of power. In their observers, this type of abuse tends to provoke, on the one hand, more fear and protection in the face of possible situations of abuse or, in the other group, it encourages a perverse look at the possibility of obtaining power through different types of bullying.

Below you can understand what types of bullying are.

1. Physical bullying

The first among the types of bullying is physical, which refers to a whole set of actions of physical violence that the aggressor performs on the victim , encouraged by passive observers. Blows, pushes, fights, slaps, trips, among others, are examples of physical bullying that the aggressor uses to intimidate his victim.

The consequences that this type of abuse generates on the victim, in addition to the psychological suffering, boils down to the physical pain derived from the aggressions. In addition, it also shows their vulnerability and increases submission in the face of aggressive figures.

2. Psychological bullying

Psychological bullying refers to all types of abuse carried out through conduct that, directly or indirectly, constitutes manipulation of the victim, increasing the strength of the aggressor and his influence over her: blackmail, threats, intimidating gestures, among others. .

This type of abuse increases the victim’s fear in certain situations and school environments, causes anxiety in the face of unexpected manipulations by the aggressor and great inner distress and vulnerability.

3. Verbal bullying

This type of bullying refers to all types of verbal abuse made directly or through written messages or by third parties that the aggressor makes with his victim: insults, provocations, humiliations, false information, screams, threats, among others.

The consequences of this type of bullying on the victim are psychological paralysis or bodily stiffening in the face of the aggressor or his peers, fear and panic in the face of certain school situations, helplessness, increased introversion that undermines their social relationships, anxiety, among others.

4. Sexual bullying

Sexual bullying can happen through various manifestations such as homophobic attitudes towards some sexual orientations, humiliating comments or actions and, in extreme cases, sexual abuse.

The consequences of these acts on the victim are very harmful, as is well known in the case of any child or adolescent sexual abuse. A very deep part of sexually assaulted people breaks and, in many cases, psychological dissociations can happen as a protection mechanism in the face of the pain suffered.

Personal devaluation, distrust of the world and vulnerability increase exponentially in these cases. In this text you will find more information about dissociative disorders: what they are, symptoms, their causes and treatment.

social bullying

Social bullying refers to all those attitudes encouraged by the aggressor that provoke indifference towards the victim not only from the aggressor, but also from a good part of the victim’s surroundings. The manipulative attitude of the aggressor encourages rejection, exclusion or indifference towards the victim in other colleagues.

The psychological consequences on the affected person increase their low levels of self-esteem and can provoke responses of escape and social and school isolation that, over time, can give rise to different types of phobias such as social phobia, agoraphobia, among others.


Cyberbullying has unfortunately become a major tool of school abuse due to the magnitude of its consequences and, in turn, the possibility for the aggressor to remain anonymous. This type of abuse takes place through all kinds of social networks in which humiliating images, videos, gossip about the victim of bullying are spread.

The consequences that this type of aggression generates on the victim can lead to states of paranoia and psychological and emotional blockage and paralysis.

The most serious consequence that can happen to the victim because of any type of bullying that happens for a prolonged period of time is suicide. Work to prevent these types of abuses in school institutions becomes an obligation for authorities, teachers and parents as the best way to protect the most fragile and vulnerable people.

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