The logic , in simple terms, can be defined as the study of the right and wrong reasoning . This is how a human mind can make a distinction between right and wrong. Logical thinking is only possible through reasoning, but also through practice, so we are going to see below, the best Logic Exercises for high school and elementary school.
What is logic
In this article, we will talk about logic and how to improve logical thinking. Here, you will find many answers to the question of “how to improve logic?” since although there are many examples and methods to answer this question, we can focus on different exercises with which they will be able to practice both high school and elementary school students.
So let’s share some logic exercises to start with our topic . After reviewing the exercises, read the rest of the article. We have shared beneficial methods to improve your logical reasoning skills. Don’t forget to teach these methods to your children.
The logical reasoning can solve problems , or to track certain types of problems that can occur daily. Sometimes, the difficulties that arise during the educational stage of children, and adolescents, is due to the fact that they did not practice logic exercises .
Later, during adulthood, it is shown that this difficulty even does not allow to carry out such simple activities, such as being able to order their personal finances: or even simply not being able to adequately prioritize in making important decisions.
The human brain possesses the ability to have logical thinking. The development and practice of this ability is essential throughout life. In this way, it is possible to carry out and propose different types of activities. This ability has no limits regarding gender, or age. For this reason, it is recommended that from the childhood stage they begin to implement different activities that help promote the development of logical thinking.
Basically, when referring to logical thinking, it is the ability to observe, discover, relate, reason, classify as well as be able to propose strategies . These abilities are especially important for mathematical thinking.
It is not only about adding or subtracting , but it is also about being able to perform activities as simple as being able to play a soccer game. These skills are combined with good physical shape. For example, when basic concepts of logic are applied, it is possible to create a play that is theoretically simple, but is actually somewhat more complex. If the person knows how to observe, relate and therefore be able to logically order a series of steps, they will be able to achieve a goal or a good sporting move.
Logic exercises for high school
The use of logic exercises during high school is essential, since it helps students exercise logical mathematical reasoning. During this stage of academic preparation, classes begin to be taught to learn algorithms . This is how the uses of signs and symbols for various mathematical calculations become more complex. To be able to do them, it is necessary to have the ability to mental calculation . The use of logic exercises must be implemented in combination with activities carried out in the classroom to achieve good results.
Sometimes students have difficulties in mathematics ; as well as in other subjects such as physics or chemistry because they have deficiencies in logical thinking. Therefore, these students should be considered as more special. It is precisely them who should be given special attention to carry out activities that seek reflection. Only in this way will they be able to have a mental structure that is more suited to their age.
High school students must master problem-solving techniques that can facilitate their development in subjects. However, this will also help you feel more comfortable in your everyday life. When pre-baccalaureate students are subjected to logic exercise activities, they may show more interest and pleasure in performing numerical calculations. Activities like sudoku or cryptogramming, and the like, are a great way to start.
Logic exercises for elementary school
For a person to develop a good capacity for logical reflection, from an early age they must begin to perform exercises whose purpose is the development and improvement of stability to think. During the primary stage, children begin to demonstrate the ability to do number thinking . Then over time this capacity will be developed and increased.
The mathematical logic is an essential tool that will help small to be able to assimilate more easily various concepts basic math, among which are taken into account classification and correspondence .
The practice of logic exercises for young children should include the development of various notions, which will be useful for the practice of algebra and calculus. For example, these logic skills must be developed through a series of numbers, which must be identified by children. The little ones have to play with these digits, placing them in series for example.
You can do different types of very simple activities. Children enjoy activities where they can participate freely. For example , they can be shown two dolls, four cars, six stuffed animals, and eight colored pencils. Basically, it is proposed to teach them that the numbers have an ascending order . The idea is to order the set of things according to the amount of “objects they contain.”
The idea is that the child understands what the different sets of objects are and generate new ones through different combinations. For example, some children are shown a set of three fruits and another that has a total set of five different fruits. Now, they are taught a new group consisting of eight assorted fruits from both groups. This is how children will understand that it is possible to create groups that integrate different corresponding elements
Now, the classification of different groups of objects can be taught by allowing children to identify which are the common characteristics. They need to learn the ability to distribute and order in this way. A very useful exercise is to teach a child a series of objects that have associations between them, for example objects such as spoons and candies as well as glasses. It is necessary to continue a series showing the same objects while maintaining the same order, in this way the child will be able to observe them and create correspondences between them, making a logical follow-up of them in series.
As a result, when children enter new stages of study – starting from primary school to high school – students will be familiar with numbers and will be able to identify what the figures are as well as to distribute and order them.
Propositional logic exercises
Propositional logic is a type of logical thinking of the classical type , which tries to understand the different propositional variables. That is, the logical sentences. In this way, it is possible to determine what the implications are that you are proposing. Which arguments may be true are evaluated. This type of logic for some is called mathematical logic, or symbolic logic. This is because a series of symbols are used , which relates it to the mathematical language
A series of terms are used to be able to identify each of the different variables. The tautology refers to the validity possessing a formula which will always be true. A contradiction is that proposition that is considered to be always false, regardless of what the result of the logical formula is, the result will always be false. A conjunction is a formula that is both true and false at the same time. That is, these expressions depend on the validity of the arguments that define them.
This type of logic has a symbolic language , which helps to understand statements as simple as it is or elementary, which cannot be decomposed. These variables are expressed by means of letters which can be in lowercase or uppercase according to each particular case. Also, other elements are used that serve as auxiliary symbols, which helps to form compound sentences. Next, a series of logical constants are shown which are common lexical marks of a natural language:
- ¬ negation: no
- ٧ inclusive disjunction: either, or, whether … or whether,
- ٨ conjunction: y, e, or ni (= and not)
- → conditional: yes…. then
- ↔ biconditional: if and only if
There are many other symbols used, however these are some common ones. This symbolic logic is valid in mathematics and is widely used in computing .
Solved logical philosophy exercises
The logic is a discipline of philosophy , whose theme is the nature and justification of logical systems. Its theme includes these questions: Is there a single logical truth or, on the contrary, are there several, all correct? Are the logical principles questionable? Why is an expression constituted as a logical constant?
The philosophical logic is premised reflection on issues related to nature. That is why it seeks to justify facts that are common and that must have an explanation. This branch of logic raises whether it is possible to find a single logical truth.
This type of logical thinking began to be developed by Aristotle , who is considered the father of the syllogism. This important philosopher, of Greek origin, developed ideas that, during the scholasticism of the European Middle Ages, continued to be an important influence. It is about achieving systematization as well as complementing philosophical reasoning with mathematical reasoning
It turns out to be essential to practice philosophical exercises to understand various theories of probability. Mathematical procedures are combined with logic problems. For example, currently in computing, ideas proposed by this type of logical exercises are used as a basis. A good example of their use was made by the mathematician Alan Turing , considered the forerunner of modern computing, who used algorithms that took this type of logic into account.
It is necessary to study the validity of the proposed arguments , it is necessary to find an existing relationship between each of the premises in order to reach a conclusion. It is taken into consideration that all the arguments are valid and invalid at the same time. In order to distinguish them, it is about using criteria that are formal and precise.
How to develop logic?
As we have seen, there are many exercises for the development of logic. As we mentioned at the beginning, logic is a discipline of thought. Therefore, while you practice the proposed exercises, this discipline will develop and become a permanent skill in your brain. So, let’s summarize what are the best logic exercises that we can apply.
- Solve math problems
- We have not mentioned it before, but we can also resort to reading detective novels , or also watching detective films.
- Solve math puzzles and do mental math.
- Design three-dimensional structures with toys such as puzzle blocks
- Play logic games
Most of the experiences throughout our lives are also a kind of logic exercises . However, one of the most fun ways to improve your logic skills is still logic games. For example, playing chess supports the development of logical mathematical intelligence. There are also scientific logic games that we can play on computers, tablets and phones.
Difference between logic and intelligence
Intelligence is a concept that includes logic. To improve logical thinking skills, we need to develop the logical part of our intelligence. Logic and intelligence can be improved. However, logic and intelligence are not the same concepts.
Logic is not a level of intelligence . Intelligence is the name of a process of perception, interpretation, recording and use of any type of information. On the other hand , logic defines the “use of intelligence“ as a method of reaching the correct conclusion.
People can develop logical skills as they learn to apply these rules quickly and accurately. Here are some examples:
As you can see from the example above, logic is a deduction reasoning method:
- Playing chess supports children’s intelligence development.
Therefore, all logic games are compatible with the intelligent development of children .
As in the previous example, logic is a method of induction when determining a premise.