Language and Linguistics

Logical connectors examples and types

Logical connectors

The logical connectors are those linguistic structures that connect ideas that have a certain relationship with each other. By using them, the author communicates to the interlocutors the logical relationship between a first idea and those that follow. L

The logical connectors help to strengthen the coherence of the texts. On the other hand, they give continuity in the development of the concepts. The general rule of thumb for a well-written piece of writing is that one idea grows out of the previous one and leads smoothly to the next idea. Otherwise, the writing becomes a set of independent and autonomous sentences.

In this order of ideas, the proper use of logical connectors is of such importance that a small flaw can completely change the meaning of the text. To this end, there are checking rules to verify whether the most appropriate connector is used in each case.

One of those rules is to replace it with another of the same class and see if the meaning of the sentence is maintained. If the idea undergoes modifications or is completely lost, then the initially used connector is not suitable and it must be replaced.

Types and examples


Additive connectors are those that indicate that the information that appears later is an addition to what is stated. There are two subclasses for this type: summation and intensity.

The summation ones indicate that the next idea has the same intensity as the previous one (I wanted to go to the movies and had no money).

On the other hand, those with a higher intensity hue are used to reinforce the previous idea. This complementary idea reiterates the meaning of its predecessor, but with a greater load of intensity (I wanted to go to the movies, I even checked the billboard).


In the case of additive additive logic connectors there are: and, likewise, in addition, also, also, in addition, in the same way and in the same way.

On the other hand, among those with a more intense hue, the following can be highlighted: above, even more, it is more, even and in fact.


Oppositives are all those logical connectors that are used to present a contrast between connected ideas. The initial idea is modified in the complementary one. Unlike additives, they present a notion of inequality. These are classified as restrictive and exclusive.

In those of the restrictive type, the significance given is that the initial idea must be clarified in some way. This class has the equivalent in the sense of the word “but” (I wanted to go to the movies, but I didn’t have time).

On the other hand, exclusive connectors convey the idea that the preceding information does not have its usual meaning but a different one. Its equivalent in sense is the word “but” (I did not want to go to the movies, rather I wanted to go to the meeting).


In the scope of the restrictive they belong to this group: but, nevertheless, nevertheless, nevertheless, in any case, in any case. Those of the exclusive type include: if not, rather and rather.


Causal logical connectors are used to represent cause-effect relationships. Generally, the cause is presented in the preceding idea. Meanwhile, the complementary idea is presented as the consequence (I had no money: therefore, I couldn’t go to the movies).


Within logical connectors are: therefore, therefore, hence, so, consequently, therefore, for that, consequently, for what follows, for this reason, then, then it turns out that and so that .


Temporals are used to establish a timeline along which events occur or an argument unfolds.

They have three modalities: prior connectors (I went to the bank, but before I went to the cinema), simultaneity (I made some calls while I was at the cinema) and later (I went to the cinema, then I made some calls).


To the group of previous logical connectors they belong: long ago, before, in the first place, at the beginning and initially. On the other hand, in relation to those of simultaneity, the following stand out: at the same time, simultaneously and then.

Finally, in the group of those of posteriority, the following stand out: later, later, later and later.


Reformulating logic connectors have a rethinking function. They are used to express what has been said again but in another form. They are divided into three groups: explanatory, recapitulation or conclusion, and exemplification.

Thus, the explanatory reiterates what was said while maintaining the sense of the initial idea (He remains in office: that is, he does not retire). The recapitulation ones present a summary of the ideas in the writing (In short, it was not withdrawn).

Finally, those of exemplification present examples to fix the information (He says silly things, for example, “I am immortal”).


In the group of the most common explanatory logical connectors are: that is, that is, viz. And in other words. Those of recapitulation or conclusion include: finally, in summary, in short, in conclusion.

Finally, among those of exemplification, the following stand out that is, thus, for example, in this way and specifically.


Exception logical connectors act on two consecutive statements of which one is the exception of the other. When taking action, they give the idea that the relationship between the two ideas is not always like this and that it is an exception case just for that time (I went to the movies, even though I didn’t have time).


Exception logical connectors include: however, but and yet. In the same way, connectors fulfill the same function: despite, despite, and although.

-Of condition

Condition connectors present the idea that there is a limitation in the statements. Thus, it is implied that there is a limitation or condition affecting the statement . The second statement is true if and only if certain conditions are met (I’ll go to the movies if I have time).


The logical relation of the condition can be expressed with the logical connectors: if and as long as. The expressions although, despite, and unless are also used for equivalent purposes.

-Of concession

Grant logic connectors also convey the idea of ​​the existence of a constraint. However, this does not prevent the fulfillment of the statement (I went to the cinema, although I did not have time). Its equivalent meaning is that of “with everything and that.”


Among the concession, connectors stand out: still, with everything, in any way, and in any way. They are also included in this classification: anyway, no matter what and in any case.

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