Language and Linguistics

Types of artificial language definition Esperanto as artificial language

Artificial language

Artificial language is a sign system created specifically for use in areas where the use of natural language is less effective or impossible. Constructed languages ​​differ in specialization and purpose, as well as in the degree of similarity to natural languages. We are describing here the Types of artificial language.

Types of Artificial language

There are the following types of artificial languages:

1-Programming languages ​​and computer languages

languages ​​for automatic processing of information using a computer.

2-Information languages ​​

are languages ​​used in various information processing systems.

3-Formalized languages

of science are languages ​​intended for symbolic recording of scientific facts and theories of mathematics, logic, chemistry, and other sciences.

4-Languages ​​of non-existent peoples

created for fiction or entertainment purposes. The best known are the Elvish language, invented by J. Tolkien, and the Klingon language, invented by Mark Okrand for the fantasy series “Star Trek” (see Fictional Languages).

5-International auxiliary languages

 ​​created from elements of natural languages ​​and offered as an auxiliary means of interethnic communication.

Artificial languages according to the purpose

According to the purpose of creation, artificial languages ​​can be divided into the following groups :

1-Philosophical and logical languages ​​

are languages ​​that have a clear logical structure of word formation and syntax

2-Auxiliary languages

 ​​are intended for practical communication: Esperanto, Interlingua, Slovio, Slavic.

3-Artistic or aesthetic languages ​

created for creative and aesthetic pleasure: Quenya.

Also, a language is created for setting up an experiment, for example, to test the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (that the language spoken by a person limits consciousness, drives it into a certain framework).

 Artificial languages by their structurere

By their structure, artificial language projects can be divided into the following groups:

1-A Priori languages ​

based on logical or empirical classifications of concepts: Loglan, Lojban, ro, Solresol, ifkuil, ilaksh.

2-A posteriori languages

​​are languages ​​built mainly on the basis of international vocabulary: interlingua, occidental

3-Mixed languages

words and word formation are partly borrowed from non-artificial languages, partly created on the basis of artificially invented words and word-formation elements: Volapuk, Ido, Esperanto, Neo.

Famous Artificial languages 

  1. Basic English
  2. bug
  3. do
  4. interlingua
  5. latin-blue-flexion
  6. loglan
  7. lobban
  8. on “vi
  9. novial
  10. okcidental
  11. simlic language
  12. salt salt
  13. Esperanto

Esperanto as an artificial language 

Esperanto became the most famous artificial language (L. Zamenhof, 1887) – the only artificial language that became widespread and united around itself quite a lot of supporters of the international language. Esperanto is based on international words borrowed from Latin and Greek, and 16 grammatical rules that have no exceptions. There is no grammatical gender in this language, it has only two cases – nominative and accusative, and the meanings of the rest are conveyed using prepositions. The alphabet is based on Latin. All this makes Esperanto such a simple language that an untrained person can learn to speak it fluently enough in a few months of regular studies. It takes at least several years to learn any of the natural languages ​​at the same level. Currently, Esperanto is actively used, according to various estimates, from several tens of thousands to several million people. At the same time, it is believed that for ~ 500-1000 people this language is native, that is, studied from the moment of birth. Esperanto has descendant languages ​​that lack a number of shortcomings in Esperanto. The most famous of these languages ​​are Esperantido and Novial. However, none of them will become as widespread as Esperanto.

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