Morphology

Morphology (word formation)

Morphology (word formation)

 

The study of morphology, that is, of word formation, serves to demonstrate the flexibility of the language, which allows the native speaker to transfer words from one category to another by adding affixes.

Unfortunately, word formation rules do not apply to all words, in fact having very limited application or “productivity”. That is, the rule only applies to those words already consecrated by use in the language. From the English learner’s point of view, the rule only helps in word recognition, not production. Therefore, there is little point in learning the rule in order to apply it in word formation. Which also once again demonstrates the superior effectiveness of natural learning (acquisition) over formal study (learning) in the language learning process.

The usefulness of knowing the main rules of word formation from the point of view of one who is developing familiarity with English lies in the fact that this knowledge allows the identification of the probable grammatical category even when the word in its meaning is not known, which is very useful in the interpretation of texts.

There are 3 processes of word formation:

Affixation: It is the addition of prefixes and suffixes.
Ex: pleasant – unpleasant, meaning – meaningful – meaningless.

Conversion: It is the adoption of the word in another grammatical category without any transformation.
Ex: drive (verb) – drive (noun)

Compounding: Refers to the joining of two words to form a third.
Ex: tea + pot = teapot, arm + chair = armchair

AFFIXATION: Of the two types of English affixes – prefixes and suffixes, – suffixes are those that have the highest productivity, i.e. the incidence percentage is higher. Suffixes have the function of transforming the grammatical category of the words to which they apply. That is, a given suffix will always be applied to a particular category of word and will always result in another particular category.

Prefixes, in turn, usually do not change the grammatical category of the base word to which they apply. Their role is predominantly semantic, that is, they alter the meaning of the base.

Take a look at the rules below, whose lists of examples, far from being exhaustive, only serve to demonstrate the productivity of each rule with relatively common examples:

Suffixes

NOUN + … ful = ADJECTIVE (meaning full of …, having …)

NOUN + … less = ADJECTIVE (meaning without …)

art artful (creative) artless (coarse)
care careful careless
color colorful colorless (which has no color)
doubt doubtful doubtless (undoubted)
faith faithful faithless (unfaithful)
fear fearful (fearful) fearless (fearless)
force forceful (vigorous, coercive) forceless (without strength, which does not impose)
fruit fruitful fruitless (fruitless)
grace graceful graceless (not graceful)
harm (damage, injury) harmful harmless (harmless, harmless)
hope hopeful (hopeful) hopeless (hopeless)
law lawful (legal, within the law) lawless (outlaw, outlaw)
meaning meaningful meaningless
mercy merciful (godly) merciless (merciless)
mind mindful mindless (inconsequential, unaware, requiring no concentration)
pain painful painless (painless)
power powerful powerless (powerless)
shame (shame) shameful (shameful) shameless
taste tasteful tasteless
thought thoughtful (well thought out) thoughtless
use useful useless

 

beauty beautiful
hand handful (handful)
play (play, toy) playful
respect respectful
skill skillful
success successful
unsuccess unsuccessful (unsuccessful)
wonder wonderful
youth youthful

 

breath breathless
child childless
clue (clue, clue) clueless (without the slightest clue)
cord cordless
count countless
defense defenseless
effort effortless (effortless, easy)
end endless
hair hairless (no hair)
head headless
heart heartless (heartless, cruel)
home homeless
land landless
motion motionless
penny penniless (which doesn’t have a penny)
price priceless (priceless)
rest restless (restless)
seam (seam) seamless
speech speechless
stain stainless (no stain, stainless)
time timeless
top topless (without the top)
wire wireless
word wordless (speechless, mute)
worth worthless

COUNT NOUN + … ship = NONCOUNT ABSTRACT NOUN (low productivity suffix meaning state of being). The origin of the suffix _ship is a story similar to that of the suffix _hood. It was an independent word in Old English times, related to shape and had the meaning of creating, naming. Throughout the centuries it has become cohesive with the noun to which it refers acquiring the sense of state or condition of being such a thing.

adult adulthood (maturity)
boy boyhood
brother brotherhood
child childhood
father fatherhood
knight (knight, nobleman) knighthood
mother motherhood
neighbor neighborhood
parent (parent) parenthood
priest (priest) priesthood
sister sisterhood
widow (widow) widowhood (widowhood)

COUNT NOUN + … ship = NONCOUNT ABSTRACT NOUN (low productivity suffix meaning state of being). The origin of the suffix _ship is a story similar to that of the suffix _hood. It was an independent word in Old English times, related to shape and had the meaning of creating, naming. Throughout the centuries it has become cohesive with the noun to which it refers acquiring the sense of state or condition of being such a thing.

citizen citizenship
court courtship (procession, gallant)
dealer (dealer, dealer) dealership (resale)
dictator dictatorship
fellow fellowship (fellowship, solidarity)
friend friendship
intern (resident, intern) internship (internship, residency)
leader leadership
member (member, member of a club) membership (membership quality)
owner ownership
partner partnership (trading company)
relation relationship
scholar (student, academic, scholar) scholarship
sponsor sponsorship
statesman statesmanship (statesmanship)
workman (craftsman) workmanship
worth worship (admiration, reverence)

 

appropriate appropriateness (quality of being appropriate, acceptable)
aware awareness (science)
clever (smart, smart) cleverness
conscious consciousness
dark darkness
dizzy (dizzy) dizziness (dizziness)
empty emptiness (the emptiness)
faithful faithfulness
friendly friendliness (quality of who is friendly)
happy happiness
hard hardness
kind kindness
polite (well educated) politeness (good education)
rich richness
rude (rude, impolite) rudeness
selfish selfishness
serious seriousness
shortsighted (nearsighted) shortsightedness (myopia)
soft softness (softness)
thankful thankfulness
thick (thick, thick) thickness
useful usefulness
vague (vacant) vagueness (lack of clarity)
weak weakness
youthful youthfulness (characteristic of who is young)

ADJECTIVE + … ity = ABSTRACT NOUN (meaning the same as above: state, quality of; equivalent to suffix … age of Portuguese). Since the origin of this suffix is ​​Latin, the words to which it applies are mostly of Latin origin, showing a strong resemblance to Portuguese.

able (able to) ability (ability)
accessible accessibility
accountable (responsible, accountable) accountability
active activity
ambiguous ambiguity
applicable (relevant) applicability (relevance, usefulness)
available availability
communicable communicability
complex complexity
connective (connecting, connective) connectivity
feasible feasibility
fertile (fertile) fertility
flexible flexibility
generous generosity
humid humidity
cool cool) legality
personal personality
porous porosity
possible possibility
probable probability
productive productivity
pure purity (purity)
responsible responsibility
scarce (scarce) scarcity (scarcity)
simple simplicity
sincere (sincere) sincerity

VERB + … tion (… sion) = NOUN (high productivity suffix meaning state, action or institution; equivalent to Portuguese suffix … tion). The origin of this suffix is ​​Latin. Therefore, the words to which it applies are mostly of Latin origin, showing a great similarity and equivalence with Portuguese.

abort abortion
accelerate acceleration
accommodate accommodation
accuse accusation
acquire acquisition (assimilation)
act action
adapt adaptation
add (add) addition
administer administration
admire (admire) admiration
admit admission
adopt adoption
apply (apply, subscribe) application (application, registration)
approximate approximation
attend attention
attract attraction
calculate calculation
cancel cancellation
categorize categorization
celebrate celebration
classify classification
collect collection (collection)
combine combination
commit (commit) commission
communicate communication
compensate compensation
complete completion (completion)
complicate complication
make up (compose) composition
comprehend comprehension
grant (grant) concession
confirm confirmation
confront confrontation
confuse (confuse) confusion
connect connection
consider consideration
construct construction
contract contraction
contribute contribution
chat (talk) conversation
convert conversion
cooperate cooperation
coordinate coordination
correct correction
correlate correlation
corrupt corruption
create creation
declare (declare) declaration
deduce deduction
define definition (definition)
deform (deform, disfigure) deformation
demonstrate demonstration
deport deportation
describe description
determine (determine) determination
dictate dictation
direct direction
discuss discussion
distribute distribution
edit edition
educate (educate, instruct) education
elect (elect) election
evaluate evaluation
evict (expel) eviction (expulsion, eviction)
evolve (evolve) evolution
exaggerate exaggeration
examine examination
except (delete, make exception) exception
exclude (exclude) exclusion
execute execution
expand expansion
expect (expect) expectation
exhale (expire, win) expiration
explain explanation
explode (explode) explosion
exploit (exploit) exploitation
explore (explore, brave) exploration
express expression
extend (extend) extension (extension)
fluctuate fluctuation
form formation
fornicate fornication (fornication, promiscuity)
found foundation
fuse (merge, merge) fusion
generalize generalization
graduate (graduate) graduation
humiliate humiliation (humiliated)
identify identification
imagine (imagine) imagination
imitate imitation
immerse immersion
immigrate immigration
implicate implication
include inclusion
incorporate incorporation
indicate indication
infect (infect) infection
inform information
inject injection
inscribe (emboss, emboss) inscription (embossing)
inspect inspection
breathe in (breathe in) inspiration
install installation
instruct instruction
insulate insulation
intend (intend) intention
interact interaction
interpret interpretation
interrupt interruption
intone intonation
intoxicate intoxication
introduce introduction
invade (invade) invasion
invent invention
invert inversion
isolate isolation
justify (justify, align text) justification (justification, text alignment)
legislate legislation
limit limitation
locate location
lubricate lubrication
masturbate masturbation
mediate mediation
meditate meditation
menstruate menstruation
modify modification
motivate motivation
move (move, move) motion
naturalize naturalization
nominate (choose, elect) nomination (choice of candidate)
normalize (normalize) normalization
object objection
obligate obligation
operate operation
oppose (oppose) opposition
opt option
organize (organize) organization
orient orientation
penetrate penetration
permit permission
plant plantation
pollute pollution
prepare (prepare) preparation
present presentation
pressurize pressurization
pretend (pretend) pretension (pretense, doubtful claim)
privatize privatization
probe (probe, examine) probation (trial period)
produce production
prohibit prohibition
promote promotion
pronounce pronunciation
propose proposition
prosecute (accuse) prosecution (prosecution)
protect protection
punctuate (to score) punctuation (score)
qualify qualification
quest (search, search) question
quote quotation
receive reception
recognize recognition
reduce reduction
register registration
regulate (regular) regulation
report (relate) relation
relocate relocation
repeat (repeat) repetition
resign (resign, resign) resignation (resignation)
revolt (revolt) revolution
salute (salute) salutation
save salvation
satisfy satisfaction
seduce seduction
select selection
separate separation
simplify simplification
situate situation
solve solution
starve (starve) starvation (starving)
subscribe (subscribe to a journal) subscription (subscription to a journal)
suggest suggestion
tax (tax) taxation
tempt (try) temptation
terminate termination
transform transformation
transit transition
translate translation
transmit transmission
transport transportation
vibrate vibration
violate violation

VERB + … er = NOUN (meaning action agent; high productivity suffix).

analyze analyzer
announce announcer (presenter)
bake (bake, make bread) baker (baker, confectioner)
bank banker
blend blender (blender)
boil boiler (heating tank, boiler)
call caller (the one who makes a phone call)
clean cleaner
climb (subit) climber (one who climbs, rises)
make up (compose) composer
compute (compute) computer
convert convert (converter)
dive diver (diver)
drum (drumming, drumming) drummer
dry drier (dryer)
drive driver
erase (delete) eraser (eraser, eraser)
fight fighter (fighter, hunting)
fold folder (paper folder)
freeze freezer
freight freighter (ship or cargo plane)
garden (take care of garden) gardener
help helper (helper, assistant)
hunt hunter
inform informer
interpret interpreter (performer)
kill killer (killer, killer)
lead leader
light (illuminate, light) lighter
lock locker
love lover
manage manager
paint painter
perform performer
photograph photographer
play player
print printer
prosecute (accuse) prosecutor (promoter)
publish publisher
read reader
receive receiver
record recorder
reform reformer
report reporter
rob (rob) robber (robber)
rule ruler
run runner
sharpen sharpener (sharpener, sharpener)
sing singer
smoke smoker
speak speaker (spokesman)
staple (staple) stapler (stapler)
start starter
stretch stretcher (stretcher)
supply supplier
teach teacher
train trainer
transform transformer
travel traveler
use user
wait waiter
wash washer (washer, washing machine)
work worker
write writer

VERB + … able (… ible) = ADJECTIVE (same as the suffix … vel or … level of the Portuguese; high productivity suffix). Its origin is the Latin suffix _abilis, which means capable of, deserving of.

accept acceptable
access accessible
account (answer) accountable
achieve achievable
worship (worship) adorable
advise advisable
afford (afford, afford) affordable (which is within our financial capacity)
apply (apply) applicable
attain (achieve, succeed) attainable (achievable)
avail (provide, be helpful) available
bear (bear, bear) bearable (sustainable, bearable)
believe believable
break (break) breakable (brittle, fragile)
change (change) changeable (changeable)
collapse (collapse, fall, bend) collapsible (folding)
collect (collect) collectible
communicate communicable
compare (compare) comparable
comprehend comprehensible
confuse (confuse) confusable
convert convertible
debate (debate) debatable (debatable)
deliver deliverable
depend dependable (dependable)
desire desirable
detach (detach, detach) detachable (detachable, separable)
digest digestible (easily digestible)
dispose (make available) disposable (available, disposable)
drink drinkable
eat eatable
enforce (apply by force) enforceable (applicable by force)
enjoy enjoyable (nice, fun, you can enjoy)
excuse (sorry) excusable
execute executable
explain explainable
flame (put on fire) flammable
force forcible (executed by force, compulsory)
forget forgettable
grade (grade, class) gradable
ignite (cause anger) flammable (irascible)
inflate inflatable
interchange interchangeable (exchangeable)
manage (control) manageable (which can be controlled)
move movable (movable, movable)
get obtainable
pay payable
port portable
predict (predict) predictable
prevent (prevent, avoid) preventable (which can be prevented, avoided)
question questionable
read readable
reason (reason, ponder) reasonable, reasonable, fair
receive receivable
recharge rechargeable
recover recoverable
rely on reliable
answer responsible
sense sensible
suit suitable
translate translatable
convey transmittable
transport transportable
trust trustable
understand understandable
value valuable
wash washable
act active
administrate administrative
affirm affirmative
attract attractive
communicate communicative
connect connective (connective)
conserve (conserve) conservative
construct constructive
correct corrective
decorate decorative
defend defensive
effect effective
expand expansive
expend (spend) expensive
explode (explode) explosive
inform informative
instruct instructive
interrogate interrogative
intrude intrusive
negate (deny) negative
offend offensive
permit permissive (allowed)
presumes presumptive
prevent preventive
produce productive
provoke provocative
retain retentive
talk talkative
abrupt (abrupt) abruptly
absolute absolutely
current (actual) actually (in fact, in reality)
approximate approximately
bad badly (viciously, in dire need)
basic basically
careful carefully
careless carelessly (carelessly)
certain certainly
dangerous dangerously
desperate (desperate) desperately (desperately)
different differently
eager (eager, eager) eagerly (eagerly, eagerly)
effective effectively
efficient efficiently
endless endlessly
eventual (final) eventually
exact exactly
final (final) finally,
fortunate (lucky, happy) fortunately (fortunately)
frequent frequently
generous generously
happy happily (showing happiness)
hard hardly
high highly
hopeful (hopeful) hopefully (hopefully)
important importantly
interesting interestingly
late (late, last) lately (lately)
live lively
natural (natural) naturally
necessary necessarily (necessarily)
nice (nice, nice, kind) nicely (well, nice, kindly)
normal (normal) normally
obvious obviously
occasional (occasional) occasionally
original (original) originally
perfect perfectly
permanent permanently
perpetual (perpetual) perpetually
probable probably
professional professionally
proud proudly
quick quickly (slightly)
quiet (quiet) quietly (quietly, quietly)
rapid rapidly
real (real) really
recent recently
regular (regular) regularly
serious seriously
shrewd (shrewd) shrewdly (shrewdly)
sincere (sincere) sincerely
skillful skillfully
slow slowly
soft softly
strange strangely (strangely)
strong (vigorous) strongly (strongly, vigorously)
successful successfully
sudden suddenly (suddenly)
true truly
unfortunate unfortunately,
urgent urgently
usual (usual) usually (usually, usually)
verbal (verbal) verbally
vigorous vigorously
virtual (virtual) virtually
visual visually
wise wisely (wisely, prudently)

Prefixes

Negative prefixes

————— I stopped here

NOUN … ful ADJECTIVE … less ADJECTIVE
art (art)
care (care)
color (color)
doubt (doubt)
faith (faith)
fear (fear)
force (strength)
fruit (fruit)
grace (grace)
harm (damage, loss)
hope (hope)
law (law)
meaning (meaning)
mercy (mercy)
mind (mind)
pain (pain)
power (power)
shame (shame)
taste (flavor)
thought (thought)
use (use)
artful (creative)
careful (careful)
colorful (colorful)
doubtful (questionable)
faithful (faithful)
fearful (afraid)
forceful (vigorous enforcement)
fruitful (fruitful)
graceful (gracious)
harmful (harmful)
hopeful (hopeful)
lawful (legal, legal)
meaningful (significant)
merciful (compassionate)
mindful (conscious)
painful (painful)
powerful (potent)
shameful (disgraceful)
tasteful (tasty)
thoughtful (and thought, thoughtful)
useful (helpful)
artless (coarse)
careless (Cavalier)
colorless (which has no color)
doubtless (undoubted)
faithless (unfaithful)
fearless (bold)
forceless (without power, which does not require)
fruitless (unsuccessful)
graceless (which is not graceful)
harmless ( innocuous, harmless)
hopeless ( hopeless )
lawless (lawless, outlaw)
meaningless (meaningless)
merciless (merciless)
mindless (inconsequential, unaware , requiring no concentration)
painless(painless)
powerless (helpless)
shameless (shameless)
tasteless (no flavor)
thoughtless (poorly thought out without consideration)
useless (useless)
beauty (beauty)
play (game, toy)
respect (respect)
skill (skill)
success (success)
youth (Youth)
wonder (wonder)
beautiful (beautiful, beautiful)
playful (playful)
respectful (respectful)
skillful (skilled)
success (successful)
youthful (with young aspect)
wonderful (wonderful)






child (children, child)
cord (yarn)
count (account)
defense (defense)
end (end)
head (head)
heart (heart)
home (home)
land (land)
penny (cent)
price (price)
rest (rest)
seam (amendment)
speech (speech)
stain (stain)
team (time)
top (top)
wire (wire,)
word (word)
worth (value)



















childless (without children)
cordless (wireless)
Countless (uncountable)
defenseless (helpless)
endless (endless)
headless (no-head, no-brainer)
heartless (heartless, cruel)
homeless (homeless)
landless (landless)
penniless (which has not a penny)
priceless (that is priceless)
restless (restless)
seamless (seamless)
speechless (speechless)
stainless (spotless, stainless)
timeless (eternal)
topless(without the top)
wireless (wireless)
wordless (speechless, mute)
worthless (worthless)

COUNT NOUN + … hood = NONCOUNT ABSTRACT NOUN (low productivity suffix meaning state of being). About a thousand years ago, in the period known as Old English, hood was an independent word with a broad meaning, related to the person, his personality, gender, social status, condition. The word occurred in conjunction with other nouns and later, over the centuries, became a suffix.

COUNT NOUN … hood ABSTRACT NOUN
adult (adult)
boy (boy)
brother (brother)
child (child)
father (father)
knight (knight, squire)
mother (mother)
neighbor (neighbor)
parent (parent)
priest (Father)
sister (sister)
widow (widow)
adulthood (maturity)
boyhood (boy childhood)
brotherhood (fraternity)
childhood (childhood)
fatherhood (paternity)
knighthood (nobility)
mother (maternity)
neighborhood (neighborhood)
parenthood (fatherhood)
priesthood (priesthood)
Sisterhood (Sisterhood)
widowhood (widowhood)

COUNT NOUN + … ship = NONCOUNT ABSTRACT NOUN (low productivity suffix meaning state of being). The origin of the suffix _ship is a story similar to that of the suffix _hood. It was an independent word in Old English times, related to shape and had the meaning of creating, naming. Throughout the centuries it has become cohesive with the noun to which it refers acquiring the sense of state or condition of being such a thing.

COUNT NOUN … ship ABSTRACT NOUN
citizen (citizen)
court (court)
dealer (dealer, reseller)
dictator (dictator)
fellow (fellow)
friend (friend)
intern (resident, intern)
leader (leader)
member (partner, member of a club)
owner (owner)
partner (partner, companion)
relation (relationship)
scholar
sponsor (sponsor)
statesman (statesman)
workman
worth
citizenship (citizenship)
courtship (courting, wooing)
dealership (resale)
dictatorship (dictatorship)
fellowship (fellowship, solidarity)
friendship (friendship)
internship (internship, residency)
leadership (leadership)
membership (quality who is a partner)
ownership (possession, property)
partnership (commercial company)
relationship (relationship)
scholarship
sponsorship (sponsorship)
statesmanship
workmanship
worship

ADJECTIVE + … ness = NONCOUNT ABSTRACT NOUN (meaning state, quality of)

ADJECTIVE … ness ABSTRACT NOUN
Appropriate (appropriate)
aware (aware)
clever (smart, intelligent)
conscious (conscious)
dark (dark)
Dizzy (Dizzy)
empty (empty)
faithful (faithful)
happy (happy)
hard (hard)
kind (gentle)
polite (well educated)
rich (rich)
rude (rude, ill-mannered)
selfish (selfish)
serious (seriously)
soft (soft, smooth)
thankful (appreciative)
thick (thick, thick)
useful (
vague )
weak (weak)
youthful ( youthful )
appropriateness (property)
awareness (science)
cleverness (cleverness)
consciousness (awareness)
darkness (darkness)
dizziness (dizziness)
emptiness (emptiness)
faithfulness (loyalty)
happiness (happiness)
hardness (hardness)
kindness (gentleness)
politeness (good manners)
richness (
rudeness ) rudeness (
impolite ) selfishness (selfishness)
seriousness (seriousness)
softness (softness)
thankfulness (thanks)
thickness (thickness)
usefulness (utility)
vagueness (unclear)
weakness (weakness)
youthfulness (characteristic of those who are young)

ADJECTIVE + … ity = ABSTRACT NOUN (meaning the same as above: state, quality of; equivalent to suffix … age of Portuguese). Since the origin of this suffix is ​​Latin, the words to which it applies are mostly of Latin origin, showing a strong resemblance to Portuguese.

ADJECTIVE … ity ABSTRACT NOUN
able (fit, which is capable of)
accessible (accessible)
accountable (responsible, accountable)
active (active)
ambiguous (ambiguous)
applicable (which applies relevant)
available (available)
communicable (communicable)
complex (complex)
connective (connecting, connective)
feasible (feasible)
fertile (fertile)
flexible (flexible)
generous (generous)
humid (moist)
Legal (legal)
personal (personal)
porous (porous)
possible (possible)
probable (likely)
productive (productive)
pure (neat)
Responsible (responsible)
scarce (scarce)
simple (simple)
sincere (honest)
ability (skill, ability)
accessibility (affordability)
accountability (responsibility)
activity (activity)
ambiguity (ambiguity)
applicability (relevance, usefulness)
availability (availability)
communicability (communicability)
complexity (complexity)
connectivity (connectivity)
feasibility (viability)
fertility ( fertility)
flexibility (flexibility)
generosity (generously)
humidity (moisture)
legality(legality)
personality (personality)
porosity (porosity)
Possibility (possibility)
probability (likelihood)
productivity (productivity)
purity (purity)
responsibility (liability)
scarcity (scarcity)
simplicity (simplicity)
sincerity (sincerity)

VERB + … tion (… sion) = NOUN (high productivity suffix meaning state, action or institution; equivalent to Portuguese suffix … tion). The origin of this suffix is ​​Latin. Therefore, the words to which it applies are mostly of Latin origin, showing a great similarity and equivalence with Portuguese.

VERB … tion NOUN
abort (abort)
accelerate (speed)
accommodate (accommodate)
accuse (charge)
acquire (purchase)
act (act, act)
adapt (adjust)
add (add, add)
administer (manage)
admire (wonder)
admit (admit)
adopt ( adopt)
apply (apply, sign up)
approximate (approximate)
attend (part of)
attract (attract)
abortion (abortion)
acceleration (acceleration)
accommodation (accommodation)
accusation (indictment)
acquisition (acquisition, assimilation)
action (share)
adaptation (adaptation)
addition (addition)
administration (management)
admiration (admiration)
admission (admission)
adoption (adoption)
application (application, registration)
approximation (approximation)
attention (attention)
attraction (attraction)
calculate (estimate)
cancel (stop)
categorize (categorize)
celebrate (celebrate)
classify (sort)
Collect (Collect collecting)
combining (combining)
commits (commit, commissioning)
communicate (communication)
compensate (offset)
complete (complete)
complicate (complicate)
compose (make)
comprehend (understand)
grants (grant)
confirm (confirm)
confront (face)
confuse(confuse)
connect (connect)
consider (consider)
construct (build)
contract (contract)
Contribute (contribute)
talk (talk)
convert (convert)
Cooperate (cooperate)
coordinate (coordinate)
correct (correct)
correlate (correlate)
corrupt (corrupt )
create (create)
calculation (calculation)
cancellation (cancellation)
categorization (categorization)
celebration (celebration)
classification (ranking)
collection (collection, collection)
combination (combination)
commission (commission)
communication (communication)
compensation (compensation, indemnity)
completion (act of complete, complementation)
complication (complication)
composition (composition)
comprehension (comprehension)
concession (grant)
confirmation(confirmation)
confrontation (confrontation)
confusion (confusion)
connection (connection)
consideration (consideration)
construction (construction)
contraction (contraction)
contribution (contribution)
conversation (conversation)
conversion (conversion)
cooperation (cooperation)
coordination (coordination)
correction (correction )
correlation (correlation)
corruption (corruption)
creation (creation)
declare (state)
deduce (deduce)
defines (define)
deform (warp, distort)
Manda (shown)
deport (deporting)
describe (describe)
determine (determine)
dictate (dictate)
direct (direct)
discussion (discussing)
distribute (distribution)
declaration (statement)
deduction (deduction)
definition (definition)
deformation (strain)
demonstration (demo)
deportation (deportation)
description (description)
determination (determination)
dictation (dictation)
direction (direction)
discussion (discussion)
distribution (distribution)
edit (edit)
educate (educate, instruct)
elect (electing)
evaluate (assess)
evict (expel)
evolve (develop)
exaggerate (exaggerate)
examine (scan)
except (delete, make exception)
exclude (delete)
run (execute)
expand (expand)
expect (expect to have expected)
expire (expires, win)
explain (explain)
explode (explode)
exploit (exploit, take advantage)
explore(explore, break out)
express (express)
extend (extend)
edition (issue)
education (education, instruction)
election (election)
evaluation (assessment)
eviction (eviction, eviction)
evolution (evolution)
exaggeration (hype)
examination (examination)
exception (exception)
exclusion (exclusion)
execution (enforcement)
expansion ( expansion)
expectation (expectation)
expiration (maturity)
explanation (explanation)
explosion (explosion)
exploitation (exploration)
exploration(exploitation)
expression (expression)
extension (extension)
fluctuate (float)
form (form)
fornicate (screwing)
found (found establish)
fuse (join, fuse)
fluctuation (fluctuation)
formation (formation)
fornication (fornication, promiscuity)
foundation (foundation)
fusion (melting)
generalize (generalized)
graduate (graduating, to form)
generalization (generalized)
graduation (graduation)
humiliate (humble) humiliation (humiliated)
identify (identify)
imagine (imagine)
imitate (mimic)
immerse (immersing)
immigrate (immigrate)
implicate (imply)
include (include)
incorporate (incorporate)
Indicate (state)
infect (infected)
inform (inform)
inject (inject)
Inscribe ( register, embossing)
inspect (inspect)
inspire (inhale)
install (install)
instruct (teach)
insulate (isolate)
intend (have intention, desire)
interact (interact)
interpret (read)
interrupt (stop)
intone (chant)
intoxicate (poison)
introduce (insert, present)
invade (invade)
invent (invent)
invert (reverse)
isolate (isolate)
identification (ID)
imagination (imagination)
imitation (imitation)
immersion (immersion)
immigration (immigration)
implication (implication)
inclusion (inclusion)
incorporation (incorporation)
indication (indication)
infection (infection)
information (information)
injection (injection)
inscription ( embossing)
inspection (inspection)
inspiration (inspiration)
installation (installation)
instruction (statement)
insulation (insulation)
intention (purpose)
interaction (interaction)
interpretation (reading)
interruption (Interrupt)
intonation (intonation)
intoxication (poisoning)
introduction (intro, presentation)
invasion (invasion)
Invention (invention)
inversion (inversion)
isolation (insulation)
justify (justify, align text) justification (justification, text alignment)
legislate (legislate)
limit (limit)
locate (locate)
lubricate (grease)
legislation (legislation)
limitation (limitation)
location (location)
lubrication (lubrication)
masturbate (jerk)
mediate (mediate)
meditate (meditation)
menstruate (menses)
modify (change)
motivate (motivate)
moves (move, moving)
masturbation (masturbation)
mediation (mediation)
meditation (meditation)
menstruation (menstruation)
modification (mod)
motivation (motivation)
motion (movement)
nationality (naturalized)
nominate (choose, elect)
normalize (normalize)
nationality (naturalization)
nomination (choice of a candidate)
normalization (standardization)
object (object)
obligate (force)
operate (operate)
oppose (oppose)
opt (opt)
organize (organize)
orient (guide)
objection (objection)
obligation (duty)
operation (operation)
opposition (opposition)
option (option)
organization (organization)
orientation (orientation)
penetrate (penetration)
permit (allow)
plant (plant)
pollute (polluting)
preparing (making)
present (display)
pressurizing (pressurizing)
pretend (pretend)
privatize (privatized)
probe (probe, scan)
produce (manufacture)
prohibit (prohibit)
promote (promote)
pronounce (pronounce)
propose (proposed)
prosecute (accuse)
protect (protect)
punctuate (freak)
penetration (penetration)
permission (permission)
plantation (planting)
pollution (pollution)
preparation (preparation)
presentation (presentation)
pressurization (pressurization)
pretension (claim doubtful claim)
privatization (privatization)
probation (test period)
production (production)
prohibition (ban)
promotion (promotion)
pronunciation (pronunciation)
proposition (proposition)
prosecution (prosecution)
protection(protection)
punctuation (punctuation)
Qualify (qualify)
quest (search, Search)
quote (quote)
qualification (qualification)
question (question)
quotation (quote)
receive (receive)
Recognize (recognize)
reduce (reduce)
register (register)
regulate (regular)
report (relationship)
relocate (relocate)
repeats (repeat)
resign (to resign, resign)
revolt (revolt)
reception (reception)
recognition (recognition)
reduction (reduction)
registration (record)
regulation (Regulation)
relation (ratio)
relocation (relocation)
repetition (repetition)
resignation (resignation, resignation)
revolution (revolution)
salute (greeting)
save (save)
satisfy (satisfy)
seduce (seduce)
select (select)
separate (separate)
simplify (short)
situate (place)
solve (resolve, solve)
starve (starve)
subscribe (sign a periodical)
suggest (suggest)
salutation (greeting)
salvation (salvation)
satisfaction (satisfaction)
seduction (seduction)
selection (selection)
separation (separation)
simplification (simplification)
situation (situation)
solution (solution)
starvation (starving Act)
subscription (subscription periodical)
suggestion (hint)
tax (tax, tax)
tempt (try to)
terminate (end)
transform (transform)
transit (transit)
translate (translate)
transmit (broadcast)
transport (transport)
taxation (taxation, taxation)
temptation (temptation)
termination (ending)
transformation (processing)
transition (transition)
translation (translation)
transmission (transmission)
transportation (shipping)
vibrate (vibrate)
violate (violating)
vibration (vibration)
Violation (violation)

VERB + … er = NOUN (meaning action agent; high productivity suffix).

VERB  NOUN
analyze (analyze)
announce (advertising, display)
bake (bake, bake bread)
bank (bank)
blend (mix)
boil (boiling)
call (call, call)
clean (clear)
climb (climb, subit)
compose (make )
computes (computing)
convert (convert)
dive (diving)
drum (booming, drumming)
dry (drying)
drive (drive)
erase (delete)
fight (challenge)
fold (fold)
freeze (freeze)
freight (load freight)
garden (care for garden)
help (help)
hunt (hunting)
interpret (read)
kill (kill)
lead (lead)
light (illuminating light)
lock (switching)
love (love)
manage (manage)
paint (paint)
photograph (picture)
play (playing)
print (print)
prosecute (accuse)
publish (post)
read (read)
receive (receive)
record (record, record)
report (report)
rob (robbing)
rule (rule)
run (run)
sharpen (sharpen, point)
sing (singing)
smoke (smoking)
speak (talk)
staple (staple)
start ( start)
stretch (stretch)
supply (supply)
teach (teach)
train (train)
travel (travel)
use (use)
wait (waiting)
wash (wash)
work (work)
write (write)
analyzer (analyzer)
announcer (presenter)
Baker (baker, confectioner)
banker (banker)
blender (blender)
boiler (heating tank, boiler)
caller (one who makes a phone call)
cleaner (cleaner)
climber (who scale up )
composer (composer)
computer (computer)
converter (inverter)
diver (diver)
drummer (drummer)
drier (drier)
driver (driver)
eraser(eraser, rubber)
fighter (fighter, hunting)
folder (folder for papers)
freezer (freezer)
freighter (vessel or cargo aircraft)
garden (gardener)
helper (helper, assistant)
Hunter (Hunter)
interpreter (interpreter)
killer (killer killer)
leader (leader)
lighter (cigarette lighter)
locker (closet switching)
lover (lover)
manager (manager)
painter (painter)
photographer (photographer)
player (player)
printer (printer)
prosecutor (promoter)
publisher (editor)
reader (reader)
receiver (receiver)
recorder (recorder)
reporter (reporter)
robber (Burglar)
ruler (ruler)
runner (corridor)
sharpener (sharpener, pointer)
singer (singer)
smoker (smoker)
speaker (speaker, one who speaks)
stapler (stapler)
starter (starting device)
stretcher (stretcher)
supplier (supplier)
teacher (teacher)
trainer (coach)
traveler (traveler)
user (user)
waiter (waiter)
washer (washer, washing machine)
worker (worker, employee)
Writer (writer)

VERB + … able (… ible) = ADJECTIVE (same as the suffix … vel or … level of the Portuguese; high productivity suffix). Its origin is the Latin suffix _abilis, which means capable of, deserving of.

VERB … able (… ible) ADJECTIVE
accept (accept)
access (access)
account (answer accountable)
Achieve (perform, achieve a result)
adore (love)
advise (recommend)
afford (provide, have means to pay)
apply (apply, apply a)
Attain (achieve, succeed)
avail (provide, be helpful)
bear (support, support)
believe ( to believe, to believe)
break (break, break)
change (change, change)
collapse (collapse, falling, folding)
collect(gather, collect)
communicate (communication)
compare (compare)
comprehend (cover comprise)
confuse (confuse)
convert (convert)
debate (debate)
deliver (deliver)
depend (dependent)
desire (desired)
detach (highlight, separating)
digestion (digest)
dispose (available to)
drink (drink)
eat (eat)
enforce
enjoy
excuse
run
explain
force
forget
grid
ignite
inflate
interchange
manage
moves
Obtain
pay (pay)
port (port)
predict (predict, predict)
Prevent
question
read
reason
receive
recharge
recover
rely
Respond
sense
suit
translate
transmit
transport
trust
understand
value
wash
acceptable (acceptable)
accessible (available)
accountable (charge)
achievable (achievable)
adorable (lovely)
advisable (recommended)
affordable (which is within our financial capacity)
applicable (applies)
attainable (can be reached)
available (available)
bearable (sustainable, endurable)
believable (believable)
breakable (brittle, fragile)
changeable (variable)
collapsible (folding)
collectible (billable)
communicable (communicable)
comparable (comparable)
comprehensible (comprehensive, readable)
confusable (confusingly)
convertible (convertible)
debatable (debatable)
deliverable (which can be delivered)
dependable (which can depend reliable)
desirable (desirable)
detachable (removable which gives to separate)
digestible (digestible)
disposable (available disposable)
drinkable (potable)
eatable (edible)
enforceable
enjoyable
excusable
executable
explainable
forcible
forgettable
gradable
inflammable
inflatable
interchangeable
manageable
movable
obtainable
payable (payable)
portable (portable)
predictable (predictable)
preventable
questionable
readable
reasonable
receivable
rechargeable
recoverable
reliable
Responsible
sensible
suitable
translatable
transmittable
transportable
trustable
understandable
valuable
washable

VERB + … ive (… active) = ADJECTIVE (same as the suffix … tivo or … level of Portuguese; high productivity suffix). Its origin is the Latin suffix _ivus, which means to have the ability to.

VERB … ive (… active) ADJECTIVE
act (act)
administrate (manage)
affirm (assert)
Attract (attract)
communicate (communicate)
connect (connect to )
keep (preserve)
construct (build)
correct (correct)
decorate (decorate)
defend (defending)
effect (effect)
expand ( expand)
expend (spend, spend)
explode (explode)
inform (inform)
instruct (teach)
interrogate
intrude
negate
offend
permit
presumes
prevent
produce
provoke
retain
talk
active (active)
administrative (administrative)
affirmative (affirmative)
attractive (attractive)
communicative (communicative)
connective (connective)
conservative (conservative)
constructive (constructive)
corrective (remedial)
decorative (decorative)
defensive (defensive)
effective (effective)
expansive ( expansive)
expensive (costly, expensive)
explosive (explosive)
informative (informative)
instructive (instructional)
interrogative
intrusive
negative
offensive
permissive
presumptive
preventive
productive
provocative
retentive
talkative

ADJECTIVE + … ly = ADVERB (same as the suffix … mind of Portuguese; high productivity suffix)

ADJECTIVE … ly ADVERB
abrupt (steep)
absolute (absolute)
current (real)
approximate (approximate)
bad (bad)
basic (basic)
careful (careful)
careless (careless)
Certain (right)
dangerous (dangerous)
desperate (despair)
different (different)
eager ( anxious, eager)
effective (effective)
efficient (efficient)
endless (endless)
any (final)
exact (exact)
end (final)
fortunate(lucky, happy)
frequent (frequent)
generous (generous)
happy (happy)
hard (hard, difficult)
high (high)
hopeful (hopeful)
important (important)
interesting (interesting)
late (late last)
live (live)
natural (natural)
necessary (required)
nice (good, nice, gentle)
standard (normal)
obvious (obvious)
occasional (occasional, eventual)
original (original)
perfect (perfect)
permanent (permanent)
perpetual (everlasting)
probable (likely)
professional (vocational)
proud (proud)
quick (slight)
quiet (quiet, quiet)
rapid (fast)
real (real)
recent (recent)
regular (regular)
serious (seriously)
shrewd (crafty)
sincere (honest)
skillful (skilled)
slow (slow)
soft (smooth, soft)
strange (strange)
strong (strong, strong)
success (successful)
sudden (sudden)
true (true)
unfortunate (unfortunate)
urgent (urgent)
usual (usual)
verbal (verbal)
vigorous (vigorous)
virtual (virtual)
visual (visual)
wise (wise, prudent)
abruptly (abruptly)
absolutely (absolutely)
Actually (in fact, actually)
Approximately (approximately)
badly (evilly, with dire need)
Basically (basically)
carefully (carefully)
carelessly (sloppily)
certainly (surely)
dangerously (dangerously)
desperately (desperately)
differently (differently)
eagerly (anxiously, eagerly)
effectively (effectively)
efficiently (efficiently)
endlessly(endlessly)
eventually (finally)
exactly (just)
finally (finally)
fortunately (thankfully)
frequently (often)
generously (generously)
happily (showing happiness)
hardly (hardly)
highly (highly)
hopefully (hopefully)
importantly (importantly )
interestingly (
lately ) lately (lately)
lively (animatedly)
naturally (naturally)
necessarily (necessarily)
nicely (well, in a pleasant, gently)
Normally (usually)
obviously (obviously)
occasionally (occasionally eventually)
originally (originally)
perfectly (perfectly)
permanently (permanently)
perpetually (perpetually)
probably (probably)
professionally (professionally)
proudly ( proudly)
quickly (slightly)
quietly (quietly, silently)
rapidly (quickly)
really (really)
recently (recently)
regularly (regularly)
seriously (seriously)
shrewdly (slyly)
sincerely (sincerely)
skillfully (skillfully)
slowly (slowly)
softly (gently)
strangely (strangely)
strongly (strongly, vigorously)
successfully (successfully so)
suddenly (suddenly)
truly (truly)
unfortunately (unfortunately)
urgently (urgent)
usually (usually, normally)
verbally (verbally)
vigorously(vigorously)
virtually (virtually)
visually (visually)
wisely (wisely cautiously)

 

PREFIXES

NEGATIVE PREFIXES
UN_ Meaning: the opposite of, the absence of, not
Added to adjectives and participles
High Productivity
Ex: Unable
unabridged
unassuming
unattainable
unattended
unauthorized
unavailable
unbearable
unbelievable
unborn
unclear
unconstrained
unemployed
unexpected
unfair
unforgettable
unfortunate
unfriendly
unhappy
unintelligible
unkind
unpaid
unpleasant
unreplaceable
unspeakable
unstressed
unthinkable
untidy
unwilling
unwise
NON_ Meaning: not
Added to nouns, adjectives, adverbs
Ex: non-smoker
non-conformist
non-politician
non-perishable
non-trivially
IN_

(IL_, IM_, IR_)

Meaning: the opposite of, not
Added to adjectives
Ex: illogical
immature
immovable
impatient
impolite
impossible
improper
incomplete
incorrect
inevitable
insane
irrelevant
irresponsible
DIS_ Meaning: the opposite of, not
Added to adjectives, verbs, abstract nouns
Ex: disconnect
discourteous
dislike
disloyal
disobedience
disobedient
disobey
disorder
dissociate
THE_ Meaning of lacking in lack of
Added to adjectives, nouns
Ex: amoral
anarchy
asexual
asymmetry
atheist

 

REVERSATIVE PREFIXES
UN_ Meaning: to reverse the action (1), to deprive of, to release from (2)
Added to verbs (1), nouns (2)
Ex: (1)
uncover
undo
undress
unload
unlock
unpack
untie
unwrap
unzip

(2)
unhorse
unmask

IN_ Meaning: to reverse the action (1), to deprive of, to release from (2)
Added to verbs, nouns
Ex: (1)
decentralize
defrost
desegregate
denationalization

(2)
decapitate
deforestation

DIS_ Meaning: to reverse the action (1), lacking (2)
Added to verbs (1), adjectives (2)
Ex: (1)
disassemble
disconnect
discourage
disinfect
disown

(2)
discolored
discouraged
disinterested

PEJORATIVE PREFIXES
MIS_ Meaning: wrongly, astray
Added to verbs, participles, abstract nouns
Ex: misbehave / misbehavior
miscalculate / miscalculation
misconduct
misfire
misfortune
mishap
mishear
misinform / misinformation
misleading
mistreat
misunderstanding
BAD_ Meaning: badly, bad
Added to verbs, participles, adjectives, abstract nouns
Ex: malformation
malformed
malfunction
malnutrition
malpractice
maltreat
PSEUDO_ Meaning: false, imitation
Added to nouns, adjectives
Ex: pseudo-Christianity
pseudo-classicism
pseudo-intellectual
pseudo-scientific
PREFIXES OF DEGREE OR SIZE
ARCH_ Meaning: supreme, most
Added to nouns with human reference
Ex: archbishop
archduke
arch-enemy
arch-fascist
arch-hypocrite
SUPER_ Meaning: more than, very special, on top
Added to nouns, adjectives, verbs
Ex: supercomputer
superimpose
super luxury
superman
supermarket
supernatural
superpower
supersensitive
supersonic
superstructure
OUT_ Meaning: doing better, surpassing
Added to nouns, intransitive verbs
Ex: outclass
outdistance
outgrow
outlive
outnumber
outrun
outweigh
SUR_ Meaning: over and above
Added to nouns
Ex: surcharge
surname
surtax
SUB_ Meaning: below
Added to adjectives
Ex: subatomic
subconscious
subnormal
OVER_ Meaning: excessive, too much

Added to verbs, adjectives

Ex: overconfident

overdo

overdressed

overdue

overeat

overestimate

overflow

overplay

overreact

overshadow

oversimplify

overwork

UNDER_ Meaning: too little

Added to verbs, participles

Ex: undercharge

undercook

underestimate

underfeed

underplay

underprivileged

understatement

HYPER_ Meaning: extreme

Added to adjectives

Ex: hyperactive

hypercritical

hypersensitive

ULTRA_ Meaning: extreme, beyond

Added to adjectives, nouns

Ex: ultra-conservative

ultra-high

ultralight

ultra-modern

ultrasonic

ultrasound

ultraviolet

MINI_ Meaning: little

Added to nouns

Ex: minibus

mini cab

mini mall

mini market

mini skirt

CO_ Meaning: jointly, on equal basis

Added to nouns, verbs

Ex: co-education

coexist

cohabit

cooperate

coordinate

PREFIXES OF ORIENTATION AND ATTITUDE
COUNTER_ Meaning: against, in opposition to

Added to verbs, abstract nouns, adjectives

Ex: counteract

counterclockwise

counter espionage

counter-revolution

countersink

ANTI_ Meaning: against

Added to adjectives, nouns

Ex: antibody

anticlerical

anti-clockwise

anti-missile

anti-social

anti-war

PRO_ Meaning: for, on the side of, on behalf of, in support of

Added to adjectives, nouns

Ex: pro-American

pro-Castro

pro-communist

pro-student

AGAINST_ Meaning: opposite, contrasting

Added to nouns, verbs, adjectives

Ex: contradistinction

counterfactual

counterflow

contraindicate

LOCATIVE PREFIXES
SUPER_ Meaning: above

Added to nouns

Ex: superscript

superstructure

SUB_ Meaning: under

Added to adjectives, verbs, nouns

Ex: subconscious

subcontract

subdivide

sublet

subnormal

subsection

Metro

INTER_ Meaning: between, among

Added to adjectives, verbs, nouns

Ex: intercontinental

interlinear

intermarry

international

interplay

inter-school

intertwine

interweave

TRANS_ Meaning: across, from one place to another

Added to adjectives, verbs

Ex: transatlantic

transplant

trans-Siberian

FORE_ Meaning: front part of, front

Added to nouns

Ex: forearm

foreground

forehead

foreleg

forename

 

PREFIXES OF TIME AND ORDER
FORE_ Meaning: before

Added to verbs, nouns

Ex: forecast

foreknowledge

foreshadow

foretell

forewarn

PRE_ Meaning: before

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: premarital

pre-school

pre-war

pre-19th century

POST_ Meaning: after

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: post-classical

post-election

post war

EX_ Meaning: former

Added to human nouns

Ex: ex-boyfriend

ex-husband

former president

ex-wife

RE_ Meaning: again. back

Added to verbs, nouns

Ex: reanalysis

rebuild

reclaim

recycle

re-evaluate

reuse

NUMBER PREFIXES
UNI_ Meaning: one

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: unicycle

unidirectional

unilateral

unisex

MONO_ Meaning: one

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: monogamy

monolingual

monolith

monologue

monoplane

monorail

monosyllabic

BI_ Meaning: two

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: bicycle

bifocal

bilateral

bilingual

bipartisan

biped

biplane

DI_ Meaning: two

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: dichotomy

digraph

diode

dioxide

divalent

TRI_ Meaning: three

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: triangle

tricycle

trident

trilingual

trimaran

trimester

trinomial

tripartite

tripod

MULTI_ Meaning: many

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: multiform

multilateral

multilingual

multi-national

multi-purpose

multiracial

multi-story

POLY_ Meaning: many

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: polyandry

polyglot

polygamy

polygon

polysemy

polysyllabic

polytechnic

SEMI_ Meaning: half

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: semi-automatic

semicircle

semiconductor

semi-conscious

semi-detached

semifinal

semi-finalist

semi-precious

semivowel

DEMI_ Meaning: half

(used mainly in French origin words)

Added to nouns, adjectives

Low productivity

Ex: demigod

demijohn

demi-pension

demi-sec

demisemiquaver

resign

HEMI_ Meaning: half

Added to nouns adjectives

Low productivity

Ex: hemicylindrical

hemisphere

MISCELLANEOUS AND NEO-CLASSICAL PREFIXES
SELF_ Meaning: self

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: autobiography

autocrat

autogamy

automation

automobile

autosuggestion

NEO_ Meaning: new, revived

(used for political, artistic, etc., movements)

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: neoclassicism

neoconservative

neo-gothic

neo-liberal

neorealism

PAN_ Meaning: all, worldwide

(mainly used with reference to world-wide or continental-wide activities)

Added to nouns, adjectives

Ex: pan African

pan Africanism

pan American

pan-Anglican

pan-Arabism

panchromatic

PROTO_ Meaning: first, original

Added to nouns, adjectives

Low productivity

Ex: Proto-Germanic

protolanguage

protest

prototype

EXTRA_ Meaning: outside, beyond, exceptionally

Added to adjectives

Ex: extracurricular

extralinguistic

extramarital

TELE_ Meaning: distant

Added to nouns

Ex: telecommunications

telegram

telegraph

telephone

telephoto

telescope

television

VICE_ Meaning: deputy

Added to nouns

Low productivity

Ex: vice admiral

vice chairman

vice president

viceroy

 

 

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