The morphological analysis is one that tells us the grammatical category or class of each of the words that form a sentence. On many occasions, this is confused with syntactic analysis, but what it does is show what functions the different groups of words have within a specific sentence. Morphological analysis with examples in English
To better understand how a morphological analysis of a sentence is carried out, we are going to know what kinds of words exist and how we can find them within the sentence. These are:
- the adverbs
- The determinants
- the pronouns
- the substantive
- the adjectives
- the verbs
- the prepositions
- the conjunctions
Adverbs are words that serve as a complement to an adjective, another adverb, a verb or another sentence.
- Of place
- Of time
- Of doubt
- Of order
Determinants are words that always accompany nouns and provide information about where they are located in space, their membership, their gender, and their number. Among the determinants we can find the following:
- Certain articles: he, the.
- Indeterminate articles: one, one, one, one.
- Demonstrative: this, this, that, that, that, that
- Possessives: my, mine, you, yours, our, yours
- Indefinite: some, few, many, quite
- Numerals: one, two, third, fourth, half, double
- Interrogatives and exclamations: what, how much, which
We use pronouns when we want to replace a noun and thus avoid its repetition in an unnecessary way within a text. Pronouns can be of different types:
- Personal: me, you, he, she, we, us, you, you, them, them
We do not indicate their examples because they are equal to the determinants. In this case we can distinguish them because the pronouns will always replace a noun and the determiners will always accompany it.
Nouns are responsible for naming people, animals or things and depending on the meaning they have, they can be of different types:
- Common: house, toy, cat
- Own: Clara, Spain
- Concrete: table, chair, plate
- Abstracts: love, fear, anguish
- Accountants: dog, shoe, orange
- Countless: friendship, milk, wind
- Singles: chair, tiger, man
- Collectives: pack, pine forest, people
For their part, in addition to belonging to one or more of the categories mentioned above, nouns also have:
- Gender: masculine, feminine and neutral.
- Number: singular or plural.
Adjectives accompany the noun and complement it . That is, they serve to provide more information about it and show its characteristics. There are different types of adjectives but when we carry out a morphological analysis we only need to indicate their gender and number.
The verb is used when we want to express an action, a state, a condition or the existence of a subject. These types of words have a root and an ending that is responsible for shaping the different conjugations and verb tenses. To carry out a morphological analysis we must indicate the following categories of the verb:
- Conjugation : if it is a conjugated form, its form must be indicated in the infinitive
- Person : first, second or third
- Number : singular or plural
- Tense : present, past, future, conditional
- Mood : indicative, subjunctive, imperative
Prepositions have the function of joining other words and establishing a relationship between them . Although there are different types of conjunctions in a morphological analysis, it will not be necessary to indicate it.
They are used when we want to join different sentences or words . These can be of different types:
- Coordinators : and, with
- Subordinate : well, because, since, yes, although
How to do a morphological analysis: easy example
Now that we know what kinds of words are involved in a morphological analysis, we are going to see some sentences and analyze them. This way it will be easier for you to understand them:
We have the prayer :
Your brother is older than mine.
The first thing we must do is separate it by words to be able to analyze each of them independently. Next in each one of them we will indicate its grammatical category. Let’s see the resulting example:
- You : possessive determiner
- Brother : noun, common, masculine, singular.
- More : adverb of quantity
- Major : adjective, neuter, singular
- What : conjunction
- Mine : possessive pronoun
Let’s see another phrase: Morphological analysis with examples in English
The brown dog runs across the meadow.
- Dog : noun, common, masculine, singular
- Brown : adjective, singular neuter
- Run : verb run, third person singular present indicative
- By : preposition
- A : determinant, article, feminine, singular
- Meadow : noun, common, feminine, singular