Morphology

Moneme definition types and examples with detail

Moneme

Obviously, our first step will be to know what the definition of moneme is. In this case, we refer to the minimum units of meaning into which words can be decomposed. Moneme definition types and examples

We were talking a moment ago about the difference between moneme and phoneme. It is essential to know that they are not the same, since the first are minimal units with meaning, while the second refers to minimal sound units without meaning by themselves.

It is also essential to establish that monemes, as they are minimal units, cannot be decomposed into other linguistic signs, that is, they are the smallest that exist with meaning and significance.

A moneme is the smallest linguistic unit that can mean something in a language. Words can be divided into multiple monemes, but only as long as a meaning remains. For example: Gardener: Jardin- ro (monema that gives meaning to the word craft which is fixed).

There are also words that cannot be divided but are natural monemes. Such is the case of:

– Water.

– sand.

– Snow.

– Letter. Moneme definition types and examples

Types of monemes

There are two main types of monemes. These are:

1-Lexeme

It is the main part or root of a word. This has a lexical meaning and cannot be changed. Some of them define themselves and others need a morpheme added to complement them.

Examples

– Histori -: history, historian, historical.

– Lying : lie, liar, lie, liar, liars.

– Child -: babysitter, babysitter, boy, girl, babysitter, little girl, childhood, babysitter, childish.

2-Morpheme

They are those letters that are added to the lexemes to complement their grammatical meaning. These attribute characteristics that allow to distinguish the quantity, the gender in a word or the mode in the verbs .

Examples

– Sir: sir to (gender) . Señor Ita (gender) . Lord is (gender and number) . Señor itas (gender and number) . Señor ía (quality). Lord ones (gender and number) . Señor ito (quality and gender).

– Dog: dog (gender). Dog a (gender). Perr itos (gender, number and quality). Dogs (gender and number).

– Come: come dry (indicative mood).

Types of morphemes

1-Dependent or linked

They must be attached to a lexeme to have a meaning. There are two types of dependent morphemes: inflections and derivatives. The first shows accidents or grammatical relationships and goes to the end of the word. These morphemes indicate:

– Gender (gat a) .

– Number (gata s ).

– Time-mode ( eas country , present indicative).

– Person. (First [ me ]; second [ you, you, you ]; third [ he, she, they ]).

– Mode. (to go , indicative mood)

Examples

– Ell os (gender and number).

– Leon is (gender and number).

Likewise, derivative morphemes are those that are added to phonemes and that give them various meanings. These can be suffixes, prefixes, or interfixes added to various parts of words. Example: small , before arm, super market.

2-Independent or free

They are those morphemes that have their own meaning and do not need to join any lexeme. These are prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, and pronouns.

Examples

– Determinants: el, ese, un, este, etc.

– Conjunctions: and, nor, u, but, because, etc.

– Pronouns: se, le, he, ella, etc.

– Prepositions: from, to, from, on, after, etc.

Word classes according to monemes

1-Independent words

It is that word composed of a single lexeme or a free morpheme.

Examples

– Bread, crocodile, table. Moneme definition types and examples

2-Derived words

They are the words that are formed from a lexeme plus several derivative morphemes (prefixes and suffixes).

Examples

– Truck eta , flower ecer.

3-Compound words

They are words that are made up of 2 or more lexemes.

Example

– Tele vision , water festivals, washes dishes.

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