Linguistic resources are some of the components that make up a discourse. It is about the procedures and elements that we use in specific ways to communicate. As such, linguistic resources exist in both written and oral speeches.
In this text we will see in more detail what linguistic resources are , as well as some types and examples of these.
What are linguistic resources?
Language can be defined as the communication system we use to exchange different types of information . As a system, it is characterized by a set of elements that are intertwined and have particular uses.
In turn, these uses vary according to the context in which they are presented and according to the communicative purpose: each element can be used in one way or another depending on the purpose of the message you want to transmit.
In other words, for a speech to communicate something, it is necessary to make use of the codes offered by the communicative context . This use occurs through procedures or means available to meet the need to communicate.
In fact, the latter is what we understand by the word “resource.” Thus, we see that a “linguistic resource” is a procedure or means at our disposal to satisfy the need to communicate something. These resources are also known as “literary resources” or “literary figures.” The nomination varies according to the gender of the speech and specific use of the resource .
In addition, language is not only a means of expression and reflection of our ideas. It is also an element that intervenes and conditions the constitution of a social reality (Santander, 2011, cited by Rubio, 2016).
This means that, beyond helping us transmit and exchange information, linguistic resources can give us important guidelines to understand a social reality. For the same reason they are elements frequently studied in discourse analysis in different contexts.
In the same sense, depending on the gender and the objectives of the text, linguistic resources can go hand in hand with strategies that help fulfill a specific communicative purpose . Examples of these strategies are persuasion, generalization, evaluation, naturalization, authorization, among others. Finally, material resources that allow us to access speeches are also considered linguistic resources.
Types and examples
Now, what elements do we use to give legibility or coherence to a speech, whether oral or written? Next we will see some types and examples of linguistic resources applied to the discourse, as well as some examples according to the support that contains them.
1. Phonetic resources
These are elements that help us highlight a specific part of the message through its sounds . Hence they are known as “phonetic” resources. Among the most common subtypes are the following:
- Alliteration : production of sound effects by the repetition of one or several phonemes, e.g. ex. “The noise with which the rock rolls” or “three sad tigers swallowed wheat.”
- Onomatopoeia : mimic natural noises to convey a message or idea, and that can become words, p. ex. “Meow” and “meow.”
- Paronomasia : similarity of sounds between almost equal but different words, for example “horse” and “hair”.
- Palindromia or palindrome : words that are read equally from left to right and from right to left, p. ex. “Anita washes the tub”.
2. Semantic resources or rhetorical elements
They are the elements that give an account of the relationship between the meaning and the signifier, that is, that allow to establish a specific meaning to each concept. Among the most representative are:
- Comparison : relate an idea or word with another that is clearer, more expressive or more concrete and whose meaning is similar to the one we are introducing.
- Metaphor : identify a word or phrase with another that is different but shares meaning, p. ex. “The windows of the soul” to refer to the eyes. The difference with the comparison is that in the case of metaphor it does not make explicit the relationship between the two ideas.
- Metonymy : it’s about naming something with a different concept that is related. For example, “take a bottle of …” (replacing the liquid with the container).
- Allegory : is the sequenced use of metaphors within a literary text
- Antithesis : contrast a sentence with another that has an opposite meaning, p. ex. “Child of legal age”.
- Hyperbole : exaggerate or minimize qualities or actions, for example of the characters in a text.
- Prosopopeya : is to attribute human properties to inanimate beings.
3. Morphological resources
Morphological resources are those that make use of the composition of words, their forms and their internal structures. Some examples of this are as follows:
Epithet : use qualifying adjectives to highlight natural qualities, even if they do not add extra information, p. ex. “the White snow”. Enumeration : use a series of nouns whose meaning is similar to describe or highlight a meaning.
4. Syntactic resources or cohesive elements
The syntactic resources are those that refer to the specific order of each word within a sentence, so that it is possible to highlight ideas. They also allow to organize the speeches in a certain way, generating a logical order of these ideas. Some of the most common are:
- Anaphora : repeat the same word at the beginning of each sentence or verse
- Hyperbaton : modify the grammatical order of words so that an idea is highlighted, p. ex. “There are thick green willows.”
- Connectors : those grammatical elements that indicate hierarchy, opposition, relationship or temporality, p. ex. “At the beginning”, “however”, “in sum”, “below”.
- Reference : indicates a relationship between the elements of the text mentioned above, or establishes a relationship between a newly raised idea and the specification of the elements referred to.
- Asyndeton : intentionally suppress conjunctions or links to join several words, for example, replace them with commas: “go, run, fly”
- Polysyndeton : contrary to the previous one, it consists of superimposing several conjunctions, for example using the “y” repeatedly: “and run, and jump, and grow, and throw”.
- Adverbs : they serve to modify, specify or exalt the meaning of a verb, an adjective or other adverb, eg “live far away,” “is extraordinarily active,” “is very unpleasant.”
5. Resources according to support
On the other hand, depending on the support, all those devices that allow us to access certain information can also be examples of linguistic resources . That is, files and tools for consultation or access to any informative element. Examples of this are dictionaries, encyclopedias, translators, applications or online consultation platforms, and so on.