Pragmatics

Features of Direct and indirect speech

Direct and indirect speech with examples

Direct and indirect speech

Direct speech

Direct speech characterized by a faithful reproduction of character expression.

On one occasion, I sat alone on a bench in the Customs Square when incredible things began to happen in the sky, there by the bands of the House of Correction: there were tea tones, which were plowing and became purple nuns unbearable beauty. Unbearable, because the sense of beauty has to be shared. When I woke up after the show ended, there were known girls, it stops at the corner of Rua Ladeira.

– What did twilight do today! – I told them, wanting to communicate.
– No, not realizing anything – said one of them. – We stay here waiting for Cezimbra.

And then still say that women have no sense of abstraction …

The speeches of the character-narrator and one of the girls, which are reproduced in the complete and introduced script , are examples of speech directly. In the speech on the right, the character’s speech is, as a rule, accompanied by a speech verb followed by a colon. verb elocution is the verb that indicates the expression of the character: for example, speak, answer, ask, ask, speak again, say, etc.

In the previous example, the author uses diction verbs (“I told them”, one of them said), but the colon is given up.

In a more traditional structure it would be:

. “… The girls didn’t know each other, stop at the corner of Rua Ladeira Eager communication, I told them:

– What did twilight do today!

He answered one of them:

– No, he doesn’t realize anything. ”

Indirect speech

Indirect speech occurs when the narrator uses his own words to reproduce the voice of a character.

In the indirect discourse We also have the presence of the verb speech (main core predicate clause), followed by the subordinate sentence (speaking of the character). This is what happens in the following passage.

“Dona Abigail sat on the bed, startled, woke her husband and said she had dreamed that she was going to lose beans. It was not the first time this scene took place. Doña Abigail aware of her adventure and housewife was constantly plagued by .. nightmares of this genre and other genres, almost all food still drunk sleepy husband reached out and took the book on the night table , “How much do you want? “

In this section, two characters are spoken (voice): the husband (“How much do you want ‘) and Mrs. Abigail told her husband” that he had dreamed that the beans would be disappeared. “

Unlike her husband’s voice, in which the narrator faithfully reproduces the character’s words, Mrs. Abigail’s speech does not sound like the words she had used at the time. The narrator is the one who plays with his own words what Dona Abigail would have said. Here we have an example of indirect discourse.

Indirect speech characteristics

 Formally it turns out that, also introduced by a declarative verb (say, for example, taking into account, recognizing, responding, etc.), the speeches of the characters are, however, a substantive subordinate sentence, in the rule developed :

“The priest Lopes confessed that he had not imagined the existence of so many madmen in the world and much less the inexplicable in some cases.”
In these sentences, as we have seen, an ellipse integral combination can occur :

“He had been arrested in the morning, just to get out of bed, and, by rough estimate of time, because I was not a clock and even if I had no reference to it in the dim light of the dungeon, thought could be eleven. ”(Lima Barreto)

The missing combination member, of course, when a substantive subordinate indirect expression construct takes the reduced form .:

“One of the neighbors told him they are the Cachoeiro authorities.” (Aranha)

2. Expressive plan marks is, first of all, that the use of indirect discourse presupposes a kind of predominantly informative and intellectual report without the theatrical function and updating of direct expression. The narrator will subordinate himself to the character, who withdraws his own form of expression. But do not conclude from this that indirect discourse is a construction of poor style. In fact, it is the wise dosed work of one or another type of discourse that good writers draw a wide variety of narrative artistic effects, in line with the expressive intentions that only the in-depth analysis of a given work can reveal.

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