What is Preposition?
It is known as a preposition to the invariable part of the sentence, whose job is to denote the relationship between them have two or more words or terms .
Although it is considered a part of the sentence, the preposition has no lexical meaning or flexion of any kind and its value is fully grammatical .
As it was said before, the prepositions have the function of relating or subordinating one word or another, since they can indicate the destiny, origin, origin, place, motive, means, time, among others, according to what it expresses in the sentence.
For example, in the noun phrase “the attic of my friend” a prepositional phrase (of my friend) is distinguished, formed by the preposition “of”, which serves as a link, and the noun phrase (my friend), which functions as term of the preposition.
Only a noun or a word, phrase or sentence that is substantiated, such as “the movie I am talking about,” can be propositional.
However, prepositions can also be accompanied by adverbs (we will go from here), to the participle or to the adjective (that happens to me by naive), to the infinitive (I come from work) and to sentences introduced because (I don’t know what this matter is about ).
However, many Spanish verbs necessarily need to be complemented by a preposition, such as: “warn of”, “lack of”, among others.
At present, the prepositions “fits” and “so” are practically obsolete, which are only used in certain expressions or phrases made, such as: under penalty, under pretext.
Classification of prepositions
Next, the classification and examples of the use of prepositions.
|Type of prepositions||Prepositions||Examples|
|Of place||to, from, in, between, towards, after, under||I come from the church.
I looked to the left and saw it.
|Of time||to, with, from, in, for, over, over, after, until||I will not go out with this cold.
The cup is on the table.
|Of cause||by||He did it for me.|
|Of purpose||to||I took it to stop coughing.|
|Of company||with||I prefer to be with my family.|
|So||to, with, of, in, by, under, according||Drive with caution.
Elsa is the supervisor.
|Instrument||to, with, of, in||Tie it with the ropes.|
|Deprivation||without||We are in a dead end street .|
|Of opposition||against||I am against the reform.|
To this list you can add the following words considered prepositions: except, except, versus, during, through, via. For example, “We all arrive on time except Luis,” “The data will be sent via email,” “We are going to compare yesterday’s game versus today’s game,” “I ate everything except soup.”
You can also include as prepositions the words when and where, before a noun, for example, “it happened to me as a child”, “marched to her friends.”
The prepositional phrase is an expression that can be formed by a noun, an adjective or an adverb together with a preposition. It is characterized because the entire expression has the value of a preposition. For example, near, behind, thanks to, regarding, outside, among others.
Prepositional phrases are also formed by adding prepositions to nouns that are already preceded by another preposition. For example, according to, under, under, based on, because of, in front of, next to, among others.
Contraction of the preposition with the article
As for the contraction, the prepositions precede a nominal phrase. The prepositions “a” and “de”, before the singular masculine determined article “el”, form a contraction of the pronoun and originate the contracted article “al” or “del”, respectively. For example, “let’s go to the movies.”
Prepositions in English
In English, the word preposition is translated as preposition . These have the same function as in the Spanish language, that is, to relate the words of a speech.
Generally, it is placed before the noun or pronoun, except in questions, and with the relative pronoun when it is followed by a preposition.
Some of the main prepositions in English are to , up , with , for , in , on , of , since , about , after , at , by , except , into , near , off , ever , among others.
It should be noted that not all prepositions in Spanish correspond to translation in English or other languages.
List and examples:
- Address that leads or the term to which someone or something is headed. Examples: I go to Madrid, to visit some friends. Those letters are written to your mother. He goes to the supermarket to buy some vegetables.
- Order or exhortation. Examples: To bathe! Everyone to bed! To do the homework!
- Place or time when something happens. Examples: He was contacted at the entrance of his house. I’ll call in the afternoon. They brought the dog to the farm.
- Situation of someone or something. Examples: It was to the left of his father. To his right was the boss. To the east you must go well sheltered.
- It indicates the term of a place or time interval that mediates between two things. Examples: They only served lunch from twelve to one. They used to talk about sidewalk to sidewalk. They were seen moving from street to street.
- Mode of action. Examples: He likes riding. The diver wove it by hand. Everything was fixed by blows.
- Designation of the price of things. Examples: All it takes is 5,000 pesos. The kilo of potato is 3,000 pesos. I bought the pencils at 1,000 pesos each.
- Distribution or proportional account. Examples: They were coming in two. I went to a warehouse and bought those products, which are three to 10,000. Take ten drops every day.
- In front of (in front of). Examples: He stood before him and told him many truths. He began to cry before the public. He spoke as never before the audience.
- In the presence of. Examples: Before the father he said that he did love him. He said yes to his whole family. They argued a long time before their children.
- In comparison, with respect to. Examples: His words were not so offensive, before his. His work, before the rest of the workers, was the best. Mark’s grades were higher, compared to his sister’s.
- Under (instead of less than). Examples: They put the water under the scales. The cat was under the bed. They found the ball under the roof.
- Dependence, subordination or submission. Examples: Children are under your responsibility. Juan was born under the sign of Pisces. He was given the answer under a guardianship he filed.
- Concealment or dissimulation. Examples: It was presented to the audience under a nickname. He hid all night under a mask, to go unnoticed. Mariana always hid under her unexpected answers.
- In a numerical gradation, it indicates a lower position than the one taken as a reference. Examples: They live at eight degrees below zero. We are six degrees below zero. I cannot live in those countries where the temperature is below zero degrees.
- From an approach or opinion. Examples: Let’s talk about the situation from other points of view. The subject will be approached under various positions. The problem must be analyzed under several aspects.
- Denotes location within a set. Examples: It is classified under the dairy section. Vegetables appear under the “healthy food” label. The books I always read, in the library, are books under reservation.
- During the period corresponding to a specific mandate or way of governing. Examples: Under the dictatorship of that president, many people have had to leave their country. Under the presidency of Pedro Pérez, the Free Trade Agreement was signed. Under her boss’s orders, she had no choice but to fulfill them.
This preposition lacks use today. It is commonly used in poetry.
- It means near, next to. Examples: Silver is fits the watch. The keys are fits the vase. I find myself fit the apple tree.
- Medium, mode or instrument used to do something. Examples: He did it with his prodigious hands. This is the recipe with which I like to make cakes. With a bucket full of water he was able to clean his house.
- Before the infinitive, it is equivalent to gerund. Examples: By talking, problems are fixed. By clearly exposing the situation, the truth can be clarified. With crying, you don’t solve anything.
- It expresses the circumstances under which something is executed or happens. Examples: He did it with a lot of effort. With the crazy cravings that characterized him, it was very difficult for him to reach his goals. With so many problems that afflicted him, he always got ahead.
- In spite of. Examples: With being so sick, radiates a beautiful energy. With having so much money, he has never stopped being noble. With his chaotic life, he always looks optimistic.
- It contrasts what is said in an exclamation with an express or implicit reality. Examples: With how talkative she was with her friends and now she is very silent! With how funny he was and now he is a very serious man! How bold he was and now everything scares him!
- Together and in company. Examples: I like to drink coffee with milk. My best vacations are always with my family. How I like to celebrate my birthday with my friends!
- Express condition. Frequently used followed by a sentence introduced by the “what” or an infinitive. Examples: With that you learn the lesson, you will pass the exam. With you going for a walk three times a week, you will be healthier. With that you read a lot, you will learn to write better.
- Opposition and contrariety of one thing with another. Examples: The match will be against the champions of the last tournament. I don’t like going against my principles. They married against the will of their parents.
- In front of. Examples: He stood against me and greeted me. He was sitting against the board and could not see. Against him he denied the causes of his dismissal.
- Towards (denotes sense of a movement). Examples: He came against me to greet me. He ran out and crashed into a wall. He went face to face against a pole.
- In exchange for (exchange). Examples: He told me that the silver was given upon delivery of the product. The delivery of the merchandise is cash on delivery. He received money against service provision.
- Possession or membership. Examples: This is my parents’ farm. Julio’s pet is a cat. That briefcase is from Ana.
- To create various adverbial locutions of mode. Examples: He had to eat standing up. He dresses brand. I know him by sight.
- Denotes where someone or something is from, comes or goes. Examples: You do not leave your home at night. That wine is from Spain. I come from Argentina and I think I’m coming back.
- Material from which something is made. Examples: The mirror is glass. I bought a silk blouse. The red ball is plastic.
- To point out what is contained in something. Examples: I need an egg box to make the cake. I ate a delicious plate of paella. Go to the store and buy me a bag of milk.
- Subject or subject. Examples: When I entered, they were talking about the party. I read a book about the French Revolution. This is my Spanish notebook.
- Cause or origin of something. Examples: He got sick with mumps. He died because of an explosion. Those tears are of happiness.
- To express the nature, condition or quality of someone or something. Examples: He is a man of good values. He said he loved him from the depths of his being. Susana is a person to trust.
- To determine or fix more vigorously the application of an appellative name. Examples: I like to live in the City of Eternal Spring. In the month of Love and Friendship I received many gifts from my friends. That is the path of freedom.
- From (denotes the point from which something comes). Examples: He traveled from Argentina to the United States. I was told that the warehouse is only open from nine onwards. He was always seen walking from side to side.
- Preceded by noun, adjective or adverb, and followed by infinitive. Examples: I am close to finding the solution. I keep tired of hearing so much rumor. I feel far from thinking about what they will say.
- Followed by infinitive with conditional value. Examples: If I had seen it before, I would have bought it for you. If I knew things before, I would not have made the mistake. If I know you well, I would recommend it.
- Followed by a verb to form verbal periphrasis. Examples: Everything goes wrong, since he stopped studying. He claimed, when he had just arrived. If you’re lucky, you even win the lottery,
- With certain names to determine the time at which something happens. Examples: The accident happened at dawn. The cafeteria is closed at night. I had many girl toys.
- To reinforce a qualifier. Examples: My aunt’s bossy said it. Many people abuse how good Daniel is. The waiter’s bad man served me the dish he wasn’t.
- As a note of lamination. Examples: From here will come the answers to so many questions. Very good conclusions will be drawn from this discussion. From the above, it is inferred that it is true.
- With partitive value. Examples: Lend me some attention. Have me a little more patience. Show, even a little, more respect.
- Denotes the rapid execution of something. Examples: In a jump he ate it. Let’s finish once and for all. He bit it all in his mouth.
- Between different parts of the sentence with expressions of pity, complaint or threat. Examples: Woe to me, with so much work and so little time! Poor of my dog, yesterday he was very sick! Woe to people who don’t meet the norm!
- For the creation of prepositional phrases from adverbs, names, etc. Examples: You have to organize it, before he returns. We have a very good relationship, unlike you. I want to stay around her.
- Also combined with other prepositions. Examples: Go from two to two and after three. He ran after me, until he reached me. In itself, things went well.
- To enter the term of the comparison. Examples: He had drunk more than he should. Everything went better than I thought. Now he performs more than 20 concerts per year.
- Denotes the point, in time or place, from which it comes, originates or has to begin to tell a thing, a fact or a distance. Examples: Since the Income Tax Law came into effect, any tax must be levied. Since the creation of life there are many changes that humanity has undergone. He sent me many gifts from Canada.
- It is also used in adverbial phrases. Examples: Since then, everything changed for good. I will share everything from here. From now on we will be the best friends.
- After. Examples: Since you left, nothing was the same again. My life changed 180 degrees, from that wonderful day. He became stronger, from all those situations he had to live.
- To introduce the perspective, focus, aspect or opinion expressed. Examples: From my opinion, I think they are right. From a political perspective, these decisions do not take us anywhere. From his point of view, things look very easy.
- Denotes simultaneity. Examples: The event was held during the summer days. During my time at school, I was a very disciplined student. He didn’t want to talk to me for a long time.
- It denotes in what place, time or way what is expressed by the verb referred to is performed. Examples: Mateo is with his family in Spain. The event was held in the month of December. I have a clothes soak, then wash it.
- It means about. Examples: The president said there will be a tax on the liquor. Yesterday there was another increase in gasoline. There will be a significant increase in the family basket.
- Denotes what someone deals with or excels. Examples: Juan has always stood out for his performance in environmental engineering. Pedro enjoys working in medicine very much. Sara has a lot of knowledge in new technologies.
- Denotes traffic situation. Examples: At the moment he goes in the car to give you the money. That case will be explained in the project. The parcel is already on its way.
- Means by. Examples: I knew I knew him in his smile. When I spoke with him, I realized who he was in the voice. In his gaze I could see what he felt.
- Denotes the term of some movement verbs. Examples: He likes to ride a bicycle. He fell walking on the street. Martha talks a lot in class.
- Denotes the situation or state in the middle of two or more things. Examples: Juan was located between Sara and Jorge. The bathroom is between the living room and the dining room. I always eat something between evening and night.
- Inside, inside. Examples: In me there is no prevention against you. Among what he thought were those solutions. There was no good attitude among his intentions.
- Denotes intermediate state. Examples: If you put me to choose between cold and heat, I keep the heat. The food tasted bitter and sweet. The shirt had a color between red and orange.
- As one of. Examples: I count Marcos among one of my best friends. Europe is among the places I want to visit. The cinema is among one of the best activities that José usually does .
- Denotes cooperation of two or more people or things. Examples: A good dialogue between friends is better than a heated discussion. The party was organized between six and eight people. Among the collaborators of the event were six women and four men.
- As per custom of. Examples: Firefighters do not step on the hose. Because of the language they use, it is very difficult to participate in a conversation between doctors. The more he thought, the more he got confused.
- Express reciprocity idea. Examples: The decision was made between them. The sisters and cousins understand each other very well. Among men there will always be camaraderie.
- Denotes the meaning of a movement, a tendency or an attitude. Examples: Everything he achieved led him to the path of triumph. He always had a good attitude towards bad things. His love for him was unconditional.
- Around, near. Examples: The flight leaves at five in the afternoon. The hotel is towards the church. The farm is towards the rocky mountain.
- Denotes term or limit. Examples: On the trip I go to Argentina. The comments reached her. He counted to one hundred and she never appeared.
- Even or even. Examples: I think even he would agree. He complains even when he is eating. He laughed even with bad jokes.
- Through, with, with the help of. Examples: The campaign can be done through fences installed in the street. We must demonstrate by our vote that we disagree with the decision. A good idea is defended by a clear explanation.
- Denotes the end or term to which an action is directed. Examples: To get to work I must take two buses. He laughed very hard to get the attention of all his teammates. He ran a lot to be able to reach it .
- Towards (denotes sense of a movement). Examples: He always had an answer for all the questions he was asked. The goals achieved were for his family. I told him that you always had to look forward.
- To indicate the place or time to which it is deferred or determined to execute something or finish it. Examples: Milena will pay two weeks of her free time, to compensate for the damage. He spent a lot of time investing in it. He spent five years of his life, to understand it.
- To determine the use that is appropriate or can be given to something. Examples: These vitamins are good to be a healthy person. That wood is useful for making the table. This cheese is good to drink with hot chocolate.
- It denotes the relationship of one thing with another, or what is its own or touches on itself. Examples: You get paid too much for how bad your work does. It is too good to be treated like this. He has read a lot for what little is expressed.
- Denotes the aptitude and capacity of a person. Examples: Sara serves to write, compose and sing. Julio is good for everything, for a lot and for nothing. The teacher has skills to draw, speak a second language and dance.
- Together with the verb, it means the resolution, disposition or aptitude to do what the verb denotes, or the proximity or immediacy to do it, and, in the latter sense, it joins the verb to be. Examples: I will be ready to discuss the subject. I was attentive to answer that question. Sofia is available to talk to you.
- With personal pronouns me, yes, among others and with some verbs, denotes the particularity of the person, or that the action of what is expressed by the verb is internal, secret and is not communicated to another. Examples: Luis studies a lot for himself. I bought many books for me. It does everything for itself.
- Together with some names, it is used by supplementing the verb to buy or with the sense of “deliver to”, “give away to”, among others. Examples: You have money for everything you want. Those songs go for your whole family. They have love for everyone.
- Indicates the agent in passive sentences. Examples: The bicycle was repaired by Juan. The food was made by his mother. The task was done by Jaime.
- Before place-names, denotes transit through the indicated place. Examples: I went to the airport for Santa Elena. To go to Mexico from Colombia, you have to go through Central America. Juanita, to get to Brazil, must pass through Colombia.
- Before place-names, it indicates approximate location. Examples: That country remains for Europe. Argentina is in the south of America. El Salvador is located in Central America.
- Denotes specific part or place. Examples: He grabbed me by the arm and kissed me. The dog is in the room barking. He grabbed me by the hair and disheveled me.
- It meets the names of time, determining it. Examples: October celebrates Halloween. By spring many trees bloom. By December we will be on vacation.
- In class or quality of. Examples: Sara, being an excellent student, earned a postgraduate degree in another country. When he married, he received a good man as a husband. When Marcos went on a trip, he left José as a replacement.
- Denote cause. Examples: Due to a serious mistake, he was kicked out of the company. They say the business was closed, due to poor hygiene. For being the best, Manuela, he won a trip to France.
- Denotes the means of executing something. Examples: The problem was solved by phone. They left by the detour, to arrive faster. I sent the information by email.
- Denotes how to execute something. Examples: For reasons of force majeure, he could not go to the party. He celebrated his birthday in style. Speak to me for good and I assure you that we will soon agree .
- Denotes price or amount. Examples: They sold the car for 20 million pesos. For the farm he offers me his apartment and a local. I rented the house for 900,000 pesos.
- In favor or in defense of someone or something. Examples: Through him I put my hands in the fire. I give my life for my children. Because of his being an example of life, I trust him blindly.
- In substitution of someone or something. Examples: She has her children for friends. Lina has a teddy bear as a pillow. Manuel has a bicycle per vehicle.
- In judgment or opinion of. Examples: Mary has her son as a saint, when she is not. Manuel has his brother as a good student, when he is very regular. They have their nephews rude, when they are good children.
- Together with some names, it denotes that something is given or distributed equally. Examples: Come two tickets per person, to go to the stadium. They pay 20,000 pesos per client that enters the plan. The tickets are 70,000 pesos per couple.
- Denote multiplication of numbers. Examples: He repeated that two times two were four. I didn’t know how much it was nine times three. When asked how much it was four times four, he didn’t know what to answer.
- Denote proportion. Examples: It makes me a discount on the equipment of 15 percent. The gain was equivalent to 40 percent. If I left it at 20 percent less, I would buy it.
- Denotes idea of compensation or equivalence. Examples: The business was done, because it was house by house. We reached an agreement, because we exchanged ideas for ideas. The work was achieved, because person by person was interviewed.
- In order to, about. Examples: Gifts were delivered by ages. The food was distributed by numbers. Several reasons were given for his untimely reaction.
- Through (passing from one side to the other). Examples: You have to pass the flour through the strainer. The rays of light pass through the tile. The thread passes through the eye of the needle.
- Without (denotes lack or lack). Examples: The letters are about to be read. There are three vacancies to be filled. The car is about to be fixed.
- Used instead of the preposition a and the verb bring or another. Examples: I go for milk and I’ll be right back. Carmen went for bread for breakfast and it took a long time. I went for the book and I didn’t get it.
- With certain infinitives, stop. Examples: For not having problems, I did not go to the walk. For not falling into error, I did it again. Not to tell the truth, I had to lie to him.
- With certain infinitives, denotes the future action of these verbs. Examples: I think it’s about to rain. I think he is about to call his sister. We are sure it is coming.
- Behind a verb, and in front of the infinitive of that same verb, denotes lack of utility. Examples: One cannot in life eat by eat. He speaks for speaking. She says it by saying something.
- Preceded by no, or followed by an adjective or an adverb and that, has concession value. Examples: The saying goes: “Not much early, it rises earlier.” Not by much reading, you are the smartest. As a liar, no one believes what he says.
- Why? Used to ask about the cause of something. Examples: Why didn’t it come? Why did you miss the exam? Why do you feel so happy?
- In accordance, or in accordance, a. Examples: Depending on the problem, the solution must be given in a group. According to the new law, you cannot drink in the street. Depending on the situation, we must wait to see what can happen.
- Before personal names or pronouns, in accordance or according to what the people in question say or say. Examples: According to what he says, the flight was delayed due to bad weather. According to what my mother tells me, the house went out and, for that reason, there is no food. According to what the professor said, the workshop must be delivered resolved next Friday.
- In proportion or correspondence a. Examples: A work contract will be made, as agreed with it. I will explain the subject again, according to the attitude and attention they put. I will pay 20,000 pesos, depending on the work you have done to me.
- Denotes lack or lack of something. Examples: We cannot go far without money. You can’t go outside without documents. Life is easier without problems.
- Outside or in addition to. Examples: In my luggage I carry a lot of clothes, without shoes. In the market I bought many vegetables, without fruits. I have many things to eat, without candy.
- Before a verb in infinitive, it is equivalent to not with its participle or gerund. Examples: I left without seeing it and it was what I most wanted. He left without eating, because he thought he would receive a giant banquet. I go without sleep to work, because last night I could not fall asleep.
Currently, very few people use this preposition.
- Low, below. Examples: They were forced to go to the conference, under penalty of labor penalty if they did not attend. On the pretext, he informed him that he could not attend the academic event. There was a lot of water or a layer of cement.
- Above. Examples: He left the food on the table. The lamp is on the desk. On that book I found the money.
- About. Examples: Julio knows a lot about the subject. Nothing is known about the investigation. People don’t know much about what they are doing to the planet.
- In addition to. Examples: About crying, he also knows how to laugh. About speaking, he also knows how to listen. About being calm, he also has his angry moments.
- To indicate approximation in a quantity or a number. Examples: Mateo has over 500,000 pesos to buy books. I think it will come around three in the afternoon. They went to the party about 30 000 people.
- With dominance and superiority. Examples: About Veronica, Camila knows more. On the older brother, the younger is more judicious. About him, she is more athletic.
- In pledge of something. Examples: About the house I need you to lend me money. On the farm lend me the car. On this ring I need 300,000 pesos.
- In a numerical gradation, it indicates a position higher than the one taken as a reference. Examples: The country dawns with a temperature of four degrees above zero. Medellin today has a temperature of 18 degrees above zero. The weather in Bogotá yesterday was 12 degrees above zero.
- Preceded and followed by the same noun, denotes the idea of repetition or accumulation. Examples: Now everything is problem about problem. People are shown laughter over laughter. In this country, everyday life has become corruption over corruption.
- A, towards. Examples: I wait for you in my house about the morning. I think I can go about the afternoon. We will be talking about the night.
- After. Examples: Medicine should be taken over breakfast. Water is very good over lunch. I hope you wait for me about the conference!
- After, then applied to space or time. Examples: After the bad times, better ones will come. After the storm comes calm. After the applause he lost his mind.
- Behind, in later situation. Examples: Behind him was she smiling. Behind the kitchen door is the patio. Behind the bars are the plants.
- Out of this, too. Examples: After not listening, ask. After being late, he gets angry. After eating a lot, you don’t get fat.
- In search or monitoring of. Examples: He left after peace. She leaves after love. Juan comes after solving the problem.
- Against, against. Examples: Barcelona will play versus Real Madrid. The match will be Red versus Green. It is a war of the west versus the east.
- By, passing by, or stopping by. Examples: He came to Colombia via Central America. The presentation heard it via videoconference. He arrived at the farm via the landslide.