Plato was a student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle in the late 5th and early 4th centuries BC. C. He is considered the true founder of philosophy , his wisdom and intelligence are shown in his different writings. The great influence that he showed as an author and systematizer has been reflected throughout the history of philosophy, where his identity as a discipline was demonstrated in his works. When was Plato born?
Who was Plato?
Aristocles , better known as Plato, a nickname possibly given him by his gym teacher in view of an outstanding feature of his physique. The nickname translates to one who has broad shoulders .
He was an important and renowned philosopher of ancient Greece . He was the creator of the Academy of Philosophy, as well as of the different works. Plato is recognized for his various dialogues in which he speaks: philosophy, ontology, politics, epistemology, metaphysics, art, among other topics.
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- As far as his philosophy was concerned, it was practical and political.
- He sought to give a perspective of reality and give possible solutions to problems with regard to change and permanence.
- It was characterized by treating women equally .
- He did not like music or art , which is why he censored such activities.
- He was the founder of: Academy of Philosophies, Astronomy, Mathematics and Physical Sciences. When was Plato born?
Plato was born in 427 BC. C . in Athens, from a distinguished family. His father was Ariston of Athens and his mother Perictione . In the beginning he showed a certain vocation towards politics, however, he abandoned it due to his love of philosophy, motivated by Socrates, who was his teacher. After the death of Socrates, Plato flees from Athens and isolates himself from public life.
Later, he travels through the East and Italy and joins the disciples of Pythagoras. After returning to Athens, in the year 387 a. C founded the school of philosophy, located in the gardens of Academos in Athens. Among the most prominent who influenced Plato are : Pythagoras , who contributed numerical harmony and geo mathematics; Anaxagoras , believed that intelligence or reason penetrates or fills everything; For his part, Parmenides who argued about the unity of all things, this was the one who influenced the concept of the soul.
Plato died in 347 BC. C . at the age of 80, where in his last years he devoted himself to share teachings at the Academy in his hometown.
All of Plato’s works are written in the form of dialogues. Platonic dialogues are organized in 4 periods :
- The first dialogues : Also known as Socratic or youth dialogues, these are described for their ethical concerns. Among the most outstanding works are:
- Apology ; where he gives a defense version before the Athenian courts.
- Crito ; where he narrates an encounter between Crito and Socrates in prison,
- Charmides where the need and importance of virtue in man arises. When was Plato born?
- The time of transition : In this period stands out for political issues. In addition, a first sketch of the theory of reminiscence emerges where it deals with the theory of knowledge. They highlight:
- Meno ; which contains a reflection about the essence of the nature of virtue,
- Euditemo ; in this dialogue the eristics of the sophists are contrasted with that exercised by Socrates ,
- Cratyl ; This dialogue was written in 360 BC. C approximately, and
- Menexeno ; which was written approximately in the year 387 a. C., is considered one of the most mysterious dialogues of all his work.
- The age of maturity : They are also known as critical dialogues, in these Plato explicitly implants the theory of ideas. Also, add more details to the reminiscence theory. At this stage, the following stand out:
- The symposium,
- Dialogue of old age : In this period Plato reviews all his previous ideas, while adding topics about nature and medicine. Here they stand out:
- Timaeus ; this dialogue is taken into account as the most influential in all philosophy.
- Sophist ; here are related the characteristics of the Sophist and the way in which he accesses knowledge,
- Critias ; which was one of the last dialogues that Plato made, where he describes the war between pre-Hellenic Athens and Atlantis.
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THEORY OF IDEAS, OF PLATO – It is also known as Theory of Forms. For Plato, the only way to access intelligible reality was through reason and understanding. It is important to mention that the division of an intelligible world and one that is sensible is compared as a pedagogical resource that is used to teach the ontological difference between intelligible and sensible things. When was Plato born?
KNOWING AND OPINION, OF PLATO – This was another of the topics that Plato dealt with profusely. Plato anticipated the most current debates between empiricism and rationalism, and later the postmodernists and their opponents when discussing the difference between objective and subjective.
THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN, ACCORDING TO PLATO – Plato in book V of the Republic places women in the class of guardians and in the final part of book VII he accepts the possibility that there may be ruling philosophers.
Famous phrases of Plato
- Where there is love, laws are superfluous .
- A correct decision is based on knowledge, not numbers.
- Ignorance is the seed of evil .
- If he is not a good servant, he will not be a good teacher.
- Music is for the soul as is gymnastics for the body .
- The best wealth is to be content with the little.
- It is not in man but in things that the truth must be found.
- Vulgar souls lack destiny. When was Plato born?
IN PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE – Contributed to the theory of ideas, logic and founded the systematic search for knowledge.
Furthermore, he divided the human soul into two: positive and negative. As for knowledge, he taught that it is innate and that it comes from birth. With his contributions he created systematic psychology.
IN MATHEMATICS – Introduced the concept of logic. He instructed about the Platonic solids of the elements: earth, fire, water and air, through geometric figures. His works on lines and squares led to the definition of different types of triangles.
Without a doubt, the life of the philosopher Plato contributed both knowledge and teachings , leaving a great legacy that until then continues to be useful in our lives. When was Plato born?