Political and social conflict against the government of Mexican President Porfirio Díaz. The Mexican Revolution is called the armed political and social conflict against the dictatorial government of Mexican President Porfirio Díaz , who had declared that, after finishing his years as president, no more free elections would be held. The announcement produced an euphoric upheaval among the people and political opponents. In this article we will let you know about Why did the Mexican revolution start?
The Mexican Revolution began on November 20, 1910 in Mexico as a consequence of the San Luis plan , devised by Francisco Madero. After a series of conflicts, the dictator Porfirio Díaz resigned and went into exile to France .
This political movement is considered the most important of the 20th century for Mexico and is commemorated in that country as a special date.
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Causes and consequences
The causes of the Mexican Revolution were the following:
- The difference in social classes caused unrest in society, which prompted the revolution.
- Mexican wealth and investments came from the exploitation of the peasants.
- Only 3% of the population of Mexico owned the country’s lands, which allowed them to exploit oil and minerals that fostered class differences.
- Porfirio Díaz’s announcement that free presidential elections would not be held after leaving office.
These factors led the people and the democratic party to rise up against the government.
The consequences that were perceived from the Mexican Revolution were the following:
- The economic sector was clearly affected, especially that related to agriculture and livestock.
- Many companies, such as the textile industry, the rice, oil and soap factories, had to close.
- Due to the migration that took place, there was an intense lack of labor.
- Subsequently, the Ayala plan was developed , which aimed to dismiss Madero for betraying the peasant causes of the revolution.
When and how did the Mexican Revolution end?
After more than five months of struggle, Porfirio Díaz signed his resignation from the presidency on May 25, 1911 , which opened the way to new elections, in which Francisco I. Madero emerged the winner.
Despite this, Emiliano Zapata and Pascual Orozco did not recognize the presidency of Francisco I. Madero , the first launched the Ayala Plan while the second the Empacadora Plan.
The government of Francisco I. Madero managed to defend itself from the Zapatistas and Orozquistas for almost two years . In February 1913, the “tragic ten” took place, known in that way, since there were ten days of military confrontations that led to Madero’s resignation. on February 19 and his assassination on February 22.
Victoriano Huerta took the presidency that same day, however, no one agreed with his election and after a year, with the Plan of Guadalupe in 1914, “the usurper” left power for Venustiano Carranza to take power.
With the Aguascalientes convention, two new revolutionary factions were opened: the conventionalists and the constitutionalists . The former named Eulalio Gómez as president, while the latter named Carranza.
The struggles between both sides culminated in November 1916 with the imposition of Carranza’s forces , leaving more than a million dead.
From that moment, President Carranza convened a Constituent Congress to draft the Constitution , which, after being voted on in January 1917, entered into force on February 5, 1917 , marking the end of the Mexican Revolution.
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Main characters of the Mexican Revolution?
The main characters of the revolution were:
- Porfirio Díaz: President of Mexico for 35 years and main reason for the citizen uprising.
- Francisco I. Madero: Leader of the movement against the government of Porfirio Díaz, through the promulgation of the Plan of San Luis.
- Victoriano Huerta: Known as “El usurpador”, for taking power by force, after the assassination of Francisco I. Madero.
The five caudillos:
- Emiliano Zapata: Known as the leader of the south, he sought social justice and that the land belonged to whoever worked it, through the phrase “Land and Freedom.”
- Pancho Villa (Doroteo Arango): He wanted the groups in power to stop abusing the peasants. He was one of the most important caudillos in the war against the government of Porfirio Díaz. His death was ordered by the government of Álvaro Obregón and that of Plutarco Elías Calles.
- Pascual Orozco: Known as the rebel leader, because in principle he helped Madero to overthrow Díaz, but later he revealed himself from his government and was one of the leaders of the counterrevolution.
- Álvaro Obregón: He was one of the most important leaders of the revolution and is considered the best strategist in the battle, since he never lost one. He was president for six months in 1920.
- Venustiano Carranza: Self-proclaimed as the “maximum leader of the Revolution”, he was the president of the constitutionalists from 1914 to 1916 and was proclaimed president of the Republic in 1917. During his government he dedicated himself to pacifying the country and seeking to enforce the Constitution until his murder in 1920 in Tlaxcalantongo, Puebla.
- Eulalio Gómez: conventionalist president from 1914 to 1916
There are more important figures who participated in the Revolution such as: Carmen Serdán, Ángela Jiménez, Félix Díaz, Manuel Mondragón, Felipe Neri Jiménez , among others.
Who won and who lost the Mexican Revolution?
The Revolution was won by the Constitutionalists of Venustiano Carranza, by establishing the Constitution of 1917 . However, there were several losers from this Revolution. In the same way, Francisco I. Madero was the winner, since, even when he was assassinated during the tragic decade, his ideal of “effective suffrage, no reelection” was maintained.
Another winner of the Revolution was Álvaro Obregón because he did not lose any battle during the armed conflict , in addition to being proclaimed president in 1920.
In the first instance, Porfirio Díaz was the loser, as he had to leave power . Likewise, the conventionalists of Eulalio Gómez were defeated by succumbing to the constitutionalists of Carranza in the “guerrilla war.” In the same way , Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa were losers , because they could not make the land owned by those who work it or that they were not abused.
Among the most leading characters of the Mexican Revolution are the following:
- Francisco Madero (1873 – 1913) : from prison, put there by the dictator Díaz, he led the revolution and the political movement against the non-reelection of Porfirio Díaz. After this revolution, he was elected president until 1913, the year in which he was betrayed and assassinated.
- Porfirio Díaz (1830 – 1915) : military man who ruled in a tyrannical way in 1910 over Mexico. After the revolution, he fled and died in Paris, France.
- Emiliano Zapata (1883 – 1919) : military leader of the revolution, defender of the peasants, carried out Ayala’s plan against Madero for betraying the causes of the revolution.
- Francisco Villa (1878 – 1923) : leader of the revolution and defender of the people. His military action was decisive in defeating the Victoriano Huerta regime, who had betrayed Madero.
- Venustiano Carranza (1859 – 1920) : a key soldier in the revolution and subsequent periods, he was president of Mexico after defeating Victoriano Huerta.