The organism is made up of several structures, each with a specific function . These structures or functional units are called organs, which intervene in similar processes or which together fulfill a certain function, forming an apparatus or system . Vital Organs
Some organs fulfill critical functions for the organism, and their absence is not compatible with life. They are known as vital organs and include the brain, heart, lungs, liver, pancreas and kidneys.
Although they fulfill important functions, there are other organs that are not so essential and that can be removed from the body, so that the person can continue living. This is the case for the stomach, intestines, spleen, bladder and sensory organs.
Below are the main vital organs and their functions:
The brain is the main organ of the nervous system
It is the body’s command center, responsible for controlling each and every one of the functions that take place in the body. Vital Organs
The brain receives information from inside and outside the body, coming from a complex network of receptors and structures, such as sensory organs. This information reaches specific centers where it is processed, giving rise to signals that control, regulate and allow the execution of various processes that occur both voluntarily and consciously and unconsciously and autonomously (such as breathing, heartbeat, body temperature , hormone secretion, bowel movements, among others).
The brain is injured mainly by failures in its blood supply, which is due to the so-called cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), which occur when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing hemorrhage or when an artery becomes blocked, causing ischemia.
These conditions cause a part of the brain to die, which leads to the emergence of a deficit, and some areas may stop functioning without compromising the patient’s life, which occurs in cases of hemiplegia, where the affected area is responsible for the motor control of the body causing paralysis. However, when critical areas such as the upper part of the brainstem are damaged, the nerve centers that regulate functions such as breathing are also affected, leading to respiratory arrest and thus the death of the individual. Vital Organs
The heart is the main organ of the cardiovascular system
It has a muscular structure that gives rise to four cavities communicated with each other and the main blood vessels through a system of valves, which allows it to perform the function of pumping blood through the circulatory system , formed by two systems: one with greater circulation and another with less circulation.
The greater circulation involves the left chambers of the heart, which receive oxygenated blood from the lungs to propel it to all organs and systems through the aorta artery. The right cavities, on the other hand, are involved with the smaller circulation, which receives poorly oxygenated blood from all tissues through the vena cava and sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.
This pump function is a critical process for the body, so it is impossible for life to continue when a serious heart condition occurs. In fact, there is a condition known as sudden death, which is due to the presence of an electrical failure in the heart that causes it to stop, which compromises the supply of oxygen to the tissues causing them to die. Vital Organs
The lungs are the organs responsible for oxygenating the blood, they are also involved in regulating the body’s acid-base balance.
Some disorders such as tumors, trauma or serious infectious diseases can lead to the need to remove one lung, even so it is possible to live with the other and with a good quality of life, however it is not possible to live without both lungs.
Some chronic conditions that affect lung function, such as chronic bronchitis or EBPOC, greatly affect the patient’s quality of life. These patients are limited in their ability to mobilize and even speak, since any activity causes them fatigue and difficulty breathing. This type of condition is irreversible and can only be definitively treated through measures such as lung transplantation.
The liver is one of Organs most important organs in the body, fulfilling more than 500 functions related to metabolism, hormonal function and blood clotting Vital Organs
The liver is susceptible to environmental toxins, various microorganisms (mainly viruses), medications, alcohol and excess fats and sugars in food. These factors cause changes in the composition of liver cells, known as hepatocytes, which cause them to accumulate fat, giving rise to fatty liver, which progresses over time with fibrosis and the onset of liver cirrhosis, a condition in which liver function deteriorates is compromised and is the leading cause of liver failure.
Liver damage is a condition that severely affects the quality of life, since it is not possible to live without this organ, which leads to the need for transplant surgery as the only treatment to maintain the patient’s life.
The pancreas is one of the main glands in the body.
It fulfills functions called exocrine related to the production of enzymes that are released to the intestine to allow the digestion of food, especially sugars and fats, in addition to this, the pancreas produces and releases into the blood one of the most important hormones in the body: insulin. Vital Organs
Failure to produce insulin can be of two types, both of which lead to the development of diabetes. Some people develop resistance to the action of insulin, which causes the pancreas to produce very high levels of this hormone to keep blood sugar levels within normal limits.
When insulin production is not sufficient, type II diabetes develops, which, if left untreated, leads to numerous complications that eventually lead to death. There is another type of diabetes, known as type I diabetes, in which the cells of the pancreas responsible for insulin production are destroyed by an immune mechanism, preventing insulin from being produced, a situation incompatible with life and which forces these patients to receive exogenous insulin permanently, unless they receive a pancreas transplant. Vital Organs
The kidney is an important organ located in the back of the abdomen and behind the peritoneum which is part of the urinary system and is responsible for filtering blood to generate urine.
The kidneys also produce an important hormone known as erythropoietin, which has the function of stimulating the bone marrow to produce red blood cells.
The kidneys are very susceptible to increased blood pressure, so hypertension is the main factor associated with the development of kidney damage; another major disorder that accelerates this damage is diabetes.
Kidney failure is known as kidney failure, this condition in its advanced stages is incompatible with life, so patients whose kidneys fail to function must undergo a treatment known as dialysis, in which the patient connects to a machine that filters your blood. This treatment is done three times a week, with three hours each session and, once started, the only way to stop it is to receive a kidney transplant from a cadaveric donor or a compatible family member.