The Nervous System is one of the most important systems of the organism, it has multiple functions that are based on receiving and processing information from the environment and the interior of the organism in order to regulate the functioning of other organs and systems. Can occur either by direct action as the aid to the endocrine system by regulating the release of stimulating factors secretion of various hormones.
How is it formed?
This system is made up of the brain, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. It is classified into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system central nervous system comprises the part covered by a bone protection system formed by the cranium and the vertebral canal of the vertebrae, while the peripheral nervous system is formed by the nervous extensions or impulses that depart from the spinal cord to the different tissues.
The importance of neurons
The structures of the nervous system are made up of a special type of cell known as neurons. These cells have very particular characteristics that differentiate them from other cells in the body, especially those that have large extensions and that do not have the capacity to regenerate, so that when they are injured or dead they lose function . It is for this reason that neurological diseases are so devastating, they are usually progressive and there is no possibility of cure, as in diseases such as dementia, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, paralysis by strokes or spinal cord injuries spinal, cerebral palsy, among others.
Neurons. Neurons have a body that is the cell itself and a series of extensions known as dendrites and axons, which allow receiving and sending information to other neurons, with which they are related through connections known as synapses, or by a mechanism such as neurons relate to each other through the release of substances known as neurotransmitters. The neuronal bodies are found in the central nervous system and give rise to clusters known as gray matter, the extensions of neurons are covered by a sheath or sheath of myelin and form the white matter.
an information center
The nervous system has a topographical distribution of information, each signal or message is transmitted by well-defined nerve conduction pathways, some of them have reliefs or connections in various areas of the brain, this is important to be able to perform higher mental functions that require association or integration of information as in learning; facts like this explain the association between phenomena, for example, when seeing a sharp object, it generates a protective conduct for removal, when associating the object with a potential injury, by remembering some pain felt with this type of object, or even by reliving a related traumatic situation.