Federalism is a form of organization of the state , usually tied to a system republican. The main idea of federalism consists of a nation that presents a territorial division in its structure , in such a way that each part or federation has a certain degree of self-government, that is, political autonomy .
The purpose of federalism is to maintain the balance of power between the different territories, so that each one of them has its own legislation in some aspects and thus can directly connect with the needs of the inhabitants. At the same time, this structure is opposed to another, centralism, based on the concentration of power and the non-recognition of the plurality of a country. Federalism
In federalism there is a mechanism of delegation or subsidiarity, that is, political power is shared by each of the federations that make up a whole.
According to historians, federalism has its origins in the alliance of different states that formed ancient Greece.
This system of organization is also used in other areas, for example, between unions, in which each of the sections or federations has its own autonomy and at the same time forms a common entity.
The federal state concept is applied to several countries: the United States, Germany, Switzerland (which is formally called a confederation) or Mexico. Federalism
In each of these countries, federalism follows historical reasons. In the case of the USA, the government of the nation as a whole is called the federal government and its structure is very similar to that which exists in each of the states that are part of it (the most responsible is the state governor). In this way, federal laws affect all citizens and are monetary, security , national defense, foreign affairs, in short, everything that is considered common to a nation. In contrast, state laws have their own particularities and can differ significantly from state to state. Federalism
In Europe there is no federal system in the strict sense of the term (formally called the state of autonomies). However, each autonomy has its own self-government and its own law for various topics (right of succession, legal status of different languages, specific taxes, etc.). Currently, there is a debate about the possibility of transforming the current system into a federal model, as well as a controversy about what the difference is between the autonomous state and the federal state.